EUEC JOURNAL                                    (ISSN 1941-9848)

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EUEC 2013 – Volume 6 – Paper #01

A new lens for a new perspective: The emerging post-Kyoto climate policy framework as explained through new enviro-economic metrics

Stephen Sewalk* and Vincent Buscarello

Burns School of Real Estate and Construction Management, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA

* Tel +1.303.871.3411, E-mail:
As the 1990 Kyoto Agreement climate change targets expired and Kyoto II fails to establish a comprehensive global climate regime, a new climate policy framework must emerge, one that will include unilateral as well as multilateral policy options and provisions for greater long-term adaptability dynamically adjusted to each country’s development prospects and economic structure. This will require that the enviro-economic indicators used in this framework become more diverse and better adjusted to multiple national priorities. In this paper, we examine two sets of literature: the 1) emergent bi/unilateral climate policy framework emerging in the wake of Kyoto I’s expiration and 2) the new metrics that help realign climate policy goals within this framework, making them not only more effective but also less costly and controversial. We argue that the recent literature on these topics can be combined to create a much more productive climate policy framework for policy makers using enviro-economic metrics. Allowing us to speculate towards possible policy implications that focus on emissions intensity and the implementation of green trade policy that leads to reduced global emissions.
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EUEC 2011 – Volume 5 – Paper #01

Potential Impact of Consumer Behavior and Carbon Price on National Energy Policy in New Zealand
Jonathan D. Leaver1,* and Luke H.T. Leaver2

1 Unitec NZ, Auckland, New Zealand, 2 Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, Tokyo, Japan

* Corresponding author. Tel: +64 98494180, Fax: +64 98154372, E-mail:

In 2008 greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector in New Zealand accounted for 19% of total emissions. Studies using the multi sector partial equilibrium model UniSyD show that vehicle costs and driving range when weighted to reflect consumer choice can result in a 38% reduction in the penetration of alternative fuelled light vehicles by 2050 and consequently is a significant factor in determining the rate of reduction in greenhouse gases. Furthermore even under a high carbon tax of US$120/t-CO2, greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 in the electricity generation and transport sectors are unlikely to be reduced to less than 8% above 1990 levels. Reductions in emissions below this level will require government policy interventions to limit the use of petroleum based transport fuels.
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EUEC 2011 – Volume 5 – Paper #02

*Mathew Aneke, Brian Agnew, Chris Underwood
School of Built and Natural Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom

An approximate economic analysis reported in this paper shows that in a novel dual source ORC system where a low-grade heat source is used to preheat and vapourise the working fluid and mid-grade heat source is used to provide the superheating, the payback period is very much smaller than when the two heat sources are used separately to drive a single ORC system. The simulation results shows that on the same waste heat basis, the size of the heat exchangers and the quantity of working fluid used for the dual source ORC is smaller than the cumulative heat exchangers size and refrigerant quantity used for the two single ORC systems.

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EUEC 2010 – Volume 4 – Paper #01

Energy Efficiency/Pollution Prevention Intern Programs Provide Low-Cost Alternatives for Implementing Energy Efficiency Projects

David A. Carter
Kansas State University Pollution Prevention Institute, Manhattan, KS

Time and money are two obstacles preventing companies from implementing energy-efficiency projects. To mitigate these concerns, the Kansas State University Pollution Prevention Institute (PPI) began an intern program that places engineering students at commercial facilities to conduct focused research on well-defined energy-efficiency projects for 10 weeks. During the program’s first three years, interns identified potential savings of more than 6.8 million kWh of electricity; 417.5 million gallons of water; 6,776 tons of solid and hazardous waste; and up to $4 million in operating or disposal costs. Follow-up surveys revealed an implementation rate of 66%. The program’s success is evident not only from energy and cost savings but also from the number of companies that return for additional interns.In the second year, two companies returned to the program. Five of seven companies were repeat participants in the third year, and three of six companies were repeat participants in 2009. Three companies have applied for interns in three of the four years the program has been offered. One three-year participant has identified annual savings of approximately one million kWh of electricity and two million gallons of water, and has reduced utility payments from $42,000/month to $16,000/month. The low cost of this program and the quantity and detail of the interns’ research render intern programs an attractive tool to assist businesses in implementing energy-efficiency projects.

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EUEC 2009 – Volume 3 – Paper #05


Joel L. Cuello
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Sara S. Kuwahara
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

The microalga Botryococcus braunii is one of many photosynthtic algae species being investigated as renewable feedstocks for production of biofuels. One key advantage of algae as biofuel feedstock, in view of the growing scarcity of fresh water worldwide, is the potential of algae to grow in low-quality water, including in the nutrient-containing effluents from wastewater-treatment plants. Indeed, algae could also potentially assist in the tertiary treatment of such wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of reclaimed water and secondary wastewater as alternative growing media for B. braunii production. The main objective was to determine whether adjusting the N and P levels in each type of wastewater relative to the control of modified Chu-13 medium would enable B. braunii to achieve the same level of productivity in each wastewater as in the control. The results showed that : (1) In comparing wastewater treatments with 100% NP adjustment against the Chu-13 medium, no significant difference in algae dry mass concentration occurred between the wastewater treatment and the control for either reclaimed water or secondary wastewater; (2) For either reclaimed water or secondary wastewater, implementing only 50% adjustments in N and P in the wastewater did not significantly increase the algae dry mass concentration relative to pure wastewater, but implementing 100% adjustments did so by at least 225% relative to pure wastewater; (3) Dry mass concentrations of B. braunii in the secondary wastewater consistently and significantly exceeded those in reclaimed water by at least 160% at all N and P levels on day 6; (4) By day 4, over 99% of the initial nitrate concentration had been removed in treatments with 50% and 100% NP adjustments for both types of wastewater, 90% in pure reclaimed water, and 85% in pure secondary wastewater; and (5) Total chlorophyll levels for B. braunii in the secondary wastewater consistently and significantly exceeded those in reclaimed water by at least 180% at all N and P levels on day 6.

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EUEC 2009 – Volume 3 – Paper #04


Prashant Shah
Energy & Resources, Deloitte & Touche LLP, Pittsburgh, PA
Kim Holloway
Energy & Resources, Deloitte & Touche LLP, Houston, TX

The plethora of climate change regulations and trading regimes already implemented and developing across the U.S. presents enormous challenges and opportunities for energy trading companies to profit from new products and services, build early mover advantages, and avoid unnecessary compliance costs. To reap the benefits of these challenges and opportunities, however, requires that companies begin an early and extensive review of the potential changes to a key structural component of their operations – business processes. This paper explores key issues and questions that should be addressed in order to begin building a mature organization for carbon trading and managing environmental assets like carbon allowances and offset credits. We focus on a set of inquiries and observations that will guide the exploration and assessment of processes that will ultimately help build the capabilities required to participate in environmental markets, specifically the markets for carbon allowances and offsets and renewable energy credits. Given the uncertainty in regulation at the U.S. federal level and the emerging and somewhat disparate regulations at the state and regional level, we address primary, high-level considerations for re-designing transacting business processes.

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EUEC 2009 – Volume 3 – Paper #03

Assessing Renewable Energy Progress and Technology

Joseph F. Giacinto
Brandie Sebastian
Environmental Resources Management, Annapolis, MD

Paul Petzrick
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Power Plant Research Program Annapolis, MD

Jason Litten
Erica Breighner
Wayne Perkins
Western Maryland Regional GIS Center, Frostburg, MD

Although substantial progress has been made during the last 35 years in renewable energy technology, total power generated by renewable energy in the United States has only grown from approximately 1.5 percent to about 10 percent, or approximately 0.25 percent per year. Over the last 35 years, total energy losses have remained close to 50 percent for all energy conversion systems, offering a substantial opportunity for energy conservation through improvements. Advancement of new energy technologies is closely tied to government funding and support due to the high initial cost of research and development. The energy crisis of the early 1970s produced a spike in interest and government funding in renewable and alternative energy sources. Subsequent to the 1970s, government support and funding for sources of alternative energy waned and renewable energy technology relied substantially on private industry for development. Several states including Maryland, have recently undertaken aggressive financial incentive programs to advance renewable energy. Just as fossil fuel-based power generators have enjoyed rapid development through substantial government subsidies over the last century, funding for renewable energy technologies will rapidly improve efficiencies and lower costs to eventually out compete declining fossil fuel-based energy generation. Electricity demand, anticipated to increase by 40 percent over the next 25 years, is equivalent to adding a city the size of Chicago and the surrounding metropolitan area to the electrical grid every ten years. Fossil fuel power plants are not likely to keep up with future energy demands simply due to the relatively long construction times for infrastructure, and world competition for fossil fuels and fossil fuel power plant components. Renewable energy offers viable alternatives for transitioning to a sustainable energy economy though gradual logistic substitution.

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EUEC 2009 – Volume 3 – Paper #02

Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge

Frank Princiotta
National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, the primary cause of the 0.8 ºC warming the earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. While much literature exists on various aspects of this subject, this paper aims to provide a succinct integration of the projected warming the earth is likely to experience in the decades ahead, the emission reductions that may be needed to constrain this warming, and the technologies needed to help achieve these emission reductions. This paper uses available, transparent modeling tools and the most recent existing literature, to draw broad conclusions about the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The paper examines forces driving CO2 emissions, how different CO2 emission trajectories could affect temperature this century, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and R&D priorities. It is concluded that it is too late too avoid substantial warming. The best result that appears achievable would be to constrain warming to about 2.0 ºC (range of 1.3 to 2.7 ºC) above pre-industrial levels by 2100. A more realistic goal would be to limit 2100 warming to 2.5± 0.7 ºC. In order to constrain warming to such a level, the current annual 3% CO2 emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Further, the current generation of energy generation and end use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration and deployment programs fall far short of what is required.

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EUEC 2009 – Volume 3 – Paper #01


Douglas B. Smith, P.Geo
Adam C. Loney, P.Eng.
Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

The need for organizations to quantify their carbon footprint is becoming increasingly imperative. Public awareness and political pressure continue to mount on the issue of climate change and new regulatory frameworks are in the works in North America. In April 2009, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed six greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, as pollutants that contribute to air pollution and may endanger public health or welfare. In the prelude to comprehensive nation-wide regulations, individual provinces and states are developing their own regulatory frameworks specific to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some of these regulatory frameworks have merged into multi-jurisdictional regulations, such as the Western Climate Initiative. These proposed regulatory frameworks all include a requirement for organizations to accurately quantify and report their GHG emissions. This paper discusses how a customized web-based data management system can be implemented to help track and report GHG emissions in accordance with applicable regulatory frameworks.

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EUEC 2008 – Volume 2 – Paper #03


Brian K. Rupp, P.E.
Gary O. Spitznogle
Marisa LaPalomento
American Electric Power
1 Riverside Plaza, Columbus, OH, 43215

From March 2006 through February 2007 American Electric Power (AEP) conducted testing of ACI at three coal-fired power plants to determine activated carbon’s effectiveness for mercury removal from flue gas. Fuels tested included a blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and eastern bituminous (EB), 100% Texas Lignite (TxL), and 100% PRB. During the testing at each power plant, multiple types of activated carbon were tested parametrically to determine which sorbent was most effective at capturing mercury in the cold-side ESP, and after parametric tests the most effective sorbent was injected continuously for 30 days at each plant. During each test, continuous mercury monitors (CMMs) and carbon traps (QSEMS) were used to measure flue gas mercury concentrations on a daily basis. Intermittent flue gas testing was also performed using the Ontario-Hydro method to measure mercury concentration and speciation, and EPA Method 29 to measure metal concentrations. This paper discusses the results of ACI testing at the three power plants in question.


EUEC 2008 – Volume 2 – Paper #02


Jeffery Russell
Eric ten Siethoffa
MPR Associates, Inc., 320 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-3230.

Andrew Shawl
RC Cape May Holdings, LLC, B. L. England Station, 900 North Shore Road, Beesley’s Point, NJ 08223-1830.

In March 2007, RC Cape May Holdings’ B. L. England Generating Station tested a non-carbon sorbent for mercury control, BASF Mercury Sorbent MS200, injecting sorbent into the flue gas upstream of the wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) system. The purpose of the test was to determine if sorbent injection upstream of the WFGD system could provide the incremental increase of mercury capture required to meet New Jersey’s mercury control requirements. In addition, the test was performed to characterize whether the collection of sorbent in the WFGD system would compromise SO2 emissions control or impact the stack particulate emissions. The three days of sorbent injection testing demonstrated that BASF MS200 sorbent could not achieve the required level of mercury control when injected upstream of the WFGD. However, no adverse impacts on SO2 control or stack particulate matter emissions were observed. Given the cost advantages of using the WFGD for mercury sorbent collection at B. L. England Station, RC Cape May Holdings plans to monitor developments in mercury control to identify a sorbent that could be tested in the future.

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EUEC 2008 – Volume 2 – Paper #01


Dawn A. Santoianni
Matthew F. Bingham
Dawn M. Woodard
Jason C. Kinnell
Veritas Economic Consulting, 1851 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513

Historically, livestock waste has provided beneficial use through the application of manure as fertilizer. However, the livestock industry’s evolution from small, distributed farms to large concentrated animal feeding operations has affected the value of livestock waste, in some cases transforming it from a local resource as a fertilizer to a social cost as a pollutant. Examples of this transition include water-pollution events associated with over-fertilization of amended lands and waste handling from intensive animal production, driving manure-management concerns. Watershed regulations, such as the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) section of the Clean Water Act and expanding state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) have prompted the investigation of alternative management options and uses for animal waste. One particular management policy that simultaneously addresses the reduction of social costs and increases in beneficial use of livestock waste is its application as an alternative, renewable fuel for electricity generation. This paper examines the regulatory and economic incentives and disincentives at the current state-of-technology for generating power from animal waste biomass at the utility level. The research examines the issues that drive its potential adoption and identifies areas of future research that are necessary to induce technological advances and implementation. The results of the paper’s review provide a number of insights. First, anaerobic digestion can be used at the livestock integrator level to produce electricity for sale on the grid; however, experience in the United States and other countries has shown that financial subsidies are required to offset capital investments by farmers. Second, electricity generation by direct combustion of animal waste is just beginning to be adopted in the U.S. in local sub-markets where water pollution and manure-management concerns spur policy incentives to support a higher price than other renewable sources. Finally, because of the inherent difficulties in co-firing biomass with fossil fuels and the characteristics of animal waste that will only exacerbate those problems, gasification remains the only technically and economically feasible option for coal-fired utilities seeking to reduce carbon, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions while meeting their respective RPSs.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 – Paper #08


Mark A. Musich
John H. Pavlish
Jeffrey S. Thompson
University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center1

David Smith
Steve Podwin

Lynn Brickett
U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory3

A consortia-based program led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), SaskPower, and ALSTOM Power to develop, test, and demonstrate sorbent-based technologies for mercury control at lignite-burning facilities is being carried out at a slipstream test facility located at the Poplar River Power Station in Coronach, Saskatchewan. The test facility consists of a fabric filter system located downstream of the plant electrostatic precipitator (ESP), allowing evaluation of a number of variables including air-to-cloth ratio, gas temperature, bag-cleaning frequency, dust loading, and sorbent injection rate. Responses to changes in these variables were measured or predicted for mercury capture, differential pressure, and bag life, and factored into the economic analysis. A range of capital and levelized annual operating costs were estimated for full-scale application of a TOXECON™ design for mercury control.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 – Paper #07


John H. Pavlish, Senior Research Advisor
Jay C. Almlie, Research Engineer
Lucinda L. Hamre, Research Specialist
Ye Zhuang, Research Engineer
Energy & Environmental Research Center
University of North Dakota, PO Box 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018

Bob Wiemuth, Generation Planning Specialist
TXU Power
1601 Bryan Street, Suite 16-119, Dallas, TX 75201-3411

Sarah Pletcher, Project Manager
U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road, MS D06, PO Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in conjunction with TXU Power and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), conducted pilot-scale testing to evaluate the potential of different mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions from plants burning Texas lignite and Texas lignite–Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blends. The initial scope of testing was defined to simulate conditions at TXU’s Big Brown Plant, examining mercury removal as a function of the following independent variables: fuel blend, sorbent type and feed rate, additive type and feed rate, process temperature, and different emissions control device configurations. This pilot-scale testing provided direction for field testing of mercury control technologies showing the most promise in the pilot-scale tests. The large-scale field tests are planned to occur in early 2006. This paper discusses the results of the pilot-scale tests and the upcoming planned field tests.
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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 – Paper #06

Ira J. Altman, Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Thomas G. Johnson, University of Missouri Columbia
Phillip C. Badger, General Bioenergy Inc.
Samuel J. Orr, Missouri Department of Natural Resources Energy Center

Four arguments are commonly provided by renewable energy advocates: environmental benefits, energy security, positive regional economic impacts and more recently, with the increase in costs of fossil fuels, cost savings. This article presents evidence on the cost savings, financial feasibility and regional economic impacts of three case studies in U.S. biopower: an anaerobic biodigester in Minnesota, a landfill gas power facility in Kentucky and a proposed biomass direct fire plant in Missouri. The cases illustrate the potential for financial and economic benefits in a multi technology and multi state study while demonstrating the use of an optimization model which will benefit proposed biopower projects entering the commercialization stage.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 – Paper #05


Michael J. Scott, Michael Kintner-Meyer, Douglas B. Elliott, William M. Warwick
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

This paper provides an economic assessment of the impacts of PHEV adoption on vehicle owners and on electric utilities. To estimate vehicle owner impacts, the paper calculates the life-cycle cost (LCC) of private vehicle transportation for vehicle owners with PHEVs and compares it with the LCC for conventional light-duty vehicles. To calculate the impacts on electric utilities, the paper provides estimates of the impacts of PHEVs on the revenue and cost streams of two sample utilities, one with its own generating resources, and one that is highly dependent on imported power (“wires only”). This calculation assumes that the host utility and the grid will have to make only minor accommodations to absorb a substantial number of vehicles. With these and other assumptions, the paper finds favorable impacts on the LCC of vehicle owners and average costs of power for both types of utilities.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 -Paper #04


Michael Kintner-Meyer, Kevin Schneider, Robert Pratt, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

This paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. LDV stock that could potentially be supported by the existing infrastructure, based on the 12 modified North American Electric Reliability Council regions, as of 2002. For the United States as a whole, up to 84% of U.S. cars, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) could be supported by the existing infrastructure, although the local percentages vary by region. Using the LDV fleet classification, which includes cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, and vans, the technical potential is 73%. This has an estimated gasoline displacement potential of 6.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, or approximately 52% of the nation’s oil imports. The paper also discusses the impact on overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a few hundred power plants. Overall, PHEVs could reduce greenhouse gas emissions with regional variations dependent on the local generation mix. Total NOX emissions may or may not increase, dependent on the use of coal generation in the region. Any additional SO2 emissions associated with the expected increase in generation from coal power plants would need to be cleaned up to meet the existing SO2 emissions constraints. Particulate emissions would increase in 8 of the 12 regions. The emissions in urban areas are found to improve across all pollutants and regions as the emission sources shift from millions of tailpipes to a smaller number of large power plants in less-populated areas. This paper concludes with a discussion about possible grid impacts as a result of the PHEV load as well as the likely impacts on the plant and technology mix of future generation-capacity expansions.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 – Paper #03


Sara J. Head, Robert Fraser, ENSR, Camarillo, California

A review of combustion turbine power plants that recently began commercial operation found that flawed assumptions were used during air permitting for startup and shutdown emission rates as well as associated time durations. Many facilities are now working to revise air permits related to these emissions limits. This paper discusses some of these efforts, approaches taken, issues identified, and experience with various permitting projects. Examples of power plant startup emission rates and durations used for combined-cycle power plants in the Southwestern United States are provided.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 -Paper #02


Ganesh Ghurye, CDM, Texas
Jean-Claude Younan, SCANA, South Carolina
Joseph Chwirka, Albuquerque-Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, New Mexico

Exposure to arsenic, a naturally occurring trace contaminant in drinking water, has recently attracted greater regulatory attention in industrial wastewater discharges as well. The discharge of arsenic to a receiving stream is subject to compliance with the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. These discharge limits established in the NPDES permit for specific contaminants are determined by the water quality criteria established for the receiving water, ambient levels of the specific contaminants, the established low-flow condition of the receiving water, and the design flow of the proposed discharge from the arsenic treatment process. Depending on these factors, the discharge limit for arsenic in industrial wastewaters can be quite stringent. For example, some power plants in the United States have recently been limited to arsenic discharges as low as 4 µg/L, which is lower than the 10 µg/L arsenic standard for drinking water. This paper presents best available technologies for the removal of arsenic from industrial wastewaters, and also discusses wastewater quality drivers affecting technology selection and treatment residuals management issues.

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EUEC 2007 – Volume 1 -Paper #01


Jeffrey H. Michel, Community of Heuersdorf, Regis-Breitingen, Germany

The development of renewable power generation in the United States is hampered by policy incoherency between federal, state, and local governments that results in insufficient overall investment incentives. By contrast, unprecedented levels of renewable energy deployment have been achieved in several European countries using guaranteed national tariffs for feeding electricity into the transmission grid by private operators on a priority basis. Despite far less sunshine, 55% of the world’s solar capacity is presently installed in Germany with a feed-in policy that promotes technical innovation, climate protection, and job creation. Operator reimbursement is guaranteed for 20 years to insure payback of capital-intensive generation equipment and to stimulate new investment. Renewable energies already provide one seventh of total generated power in Germany, higher than the level predicted by EPRI for the United States by 2030. The corresponding discrepancy between implementation potential and deployment could be overcome through the adoption of a national feed-in system for renewable power generation.

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