B&WE2.1 Corona Dead Zones Hurt Electrostatic Precipitator Performance
John Knapik, ESP Applications Engineer, Babcock & Wilcox Preciptech



MATS compliance for PM will require existing electrostatic precipitators to operate at their peak
efficiency One area of ESP operation that has received very little or no attention is uniform corona
current distribution. In Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) inspections, it is sometimes noticed that the high
voltage electrodes imprint a shadow of dust on the collecting plates of various dust layer thicknesses.
This is caused by non-uniform current density on the surface of the collecting plate from the adjacent
high voltage electrode. This systematic study examines the corona current distribution on the collecting
plate as measured in labratory testing for many different styles of high voltage electrodes. The resultant
testing is presented in color coded maps showing the varying current levels on each square inch of
the collecting surface. The results show that many existing electrodes have a distinct “dead zone”
in which little or no current flows. The testing also revealed areas of extremely high current flow, “hot
zones.” These hot zones would ascerbate a dust layer breakdown in high resistivity ash & the dead
zones have a diminished dust capture ability. Further laboratory & field testing were conducted to
develop a new design of high voltage electrodes for ESP’s to address those problems. those results will
also be presented here.

NOVINDAE2.2 Powder-Sorbent Alternatives to SO3 for ESP Conditioning
Thomas K. Gale, Director of Technology Development, Novinda Corporation; James R. Butz


Novinda Corporation has developed powder sorbent alternatives to SO3 for ESP conditioning, based
on amended-silicate technology. These powder ESP-conditioning additives are non-corrosive, easy
to handle & inject, & economically competitive with SO3. Unlike other dry powders injected at
power plants for various reasons, the amended-silicate product has both a low resistivity & a density
& geometry similar to fly ash, whereby it can effectively mix & stay mixed with the fly ash on the ESP
plates. The surface properties of bentonite clay are modified by amending proprietary chemicals to
the clay surface, which enhance the ability of the amended clay to alter the overall resistivity of a
mix of fly ash & other components mixed with the fly ash in the dust cake on the plates of an ESP. In
addition, Novinda Corporation has developed a model to predict the resistivity of the mix within an
ESP & provide recommended additives & concentrations for each power plant. Necessary inputs to
the model include the resistivity & particle-size distribution of the fly ash from a particular power plant.
The model results can be used to provide recommendations for an additive that will improve ESP
performance. Results from full-scale demonstrations showing significant improvements in opacity & the
ability to meets opacity limits without injection of SO3 will be shown.

AldenE2.3 Why satisfying ICAC EP-7 criteria alone is not enough for optimum ESP performance
Jim Daniel, Senior Engineer, Alden; Gary Grieco, Air Consulting Associates

ESP flow model studies have been traditionally conducted with the primary goal of satisfying ICAC

EP-7 criteria, however: In most cases satisfying ICAC criteria alone does not provide an adequate
solution as harmful secondary flow patterns known as crossflow may still persist at the outlet row of
collection hoppers, even after successfully achieving ICAC criteria. The crossflow occurs in the last
row of hoppers and in the gap above these hoppers and below the ESP collecting plates. Crossflow
patterns re-entrain fine particles from the hoppers, leading to higher PM emissions.

B&WE2.4 Wet ESP Continuous Water Washing Advances for Low Grade Materials of Electrodes
Anthony Silva, Advisory Engineer, Babcock & Wilcox; Tommy Liu



Wet electrostatic precipitators (ESP) located downstream of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD)
scrubbers have been used for fine particulate and sulfuric acid mist control in utility boiler applications.
High grade alloys, such as C276 or 6% Mo, are usually used in a wet ESP because the collection plates
are exposed to liquids that have a very low pH level with some level of chlorides. Continuous water
washing of the electrodes can improve the operating conditions at the electrodes to allow a lower
grade material, such as 316L SS, to be used. Different types of continuous wash systems and wash water
qualities will be discussed. Results of bench-scale testing of water washing for plate coverage and
electrical conductivity, as well as evaluations of different flow and nozzle types will also be discussed.

IACE2.5 Novel Recirculation Scrubber for BART Compliance
Pramodh Nijhawan, Executive Vice President, Industrial Accessories Company
Industrial and Utility Boiler Emission mitigation must be in compliance to MATS and/or BART reguations.
Under BART regulations a techno-economic analysis needs to be conducted to determine the
compliance technology to be implemented. A new “novel” technology has been developed to
recirculate sorbent (typically lime hydrate) for maximum acid gas mitigation. The recirculation is
affected by installing a Multiclone upstream of the existing Particulate collector (ESP or Baghouse)
and then re-circulating the required amount. This design allows the use of the existing Particulate
Collector with no or minimal changes. This technology was recently awarded a US Patent for acid-gas
mitigation with a variety of different sorbents. This technology is especially applicable for Biomass Boiler
applications. In biomass the Flue gas has a high moisture content and further the flyash may contain
char (unburned particulate mass). In the traditional Recirculation Reactor, the Baghouse recirculaes
the particulates in the Flue Gas. The high moisture content can cause the particulate mass to be sticky
and cause buildup in the air slide; and the recirculation of the char from the Baghouse can cause high
temperatures and/or fires in the Baghouse. With the IAC design and technology, the recirculation
occurs at the Multiclone and the particulate collector remains unaffected. The Multiclone further
provides the flexibility to use it with an existing ESP as well.

PCMEE3.1 Calibration of light scatter PM-CEMs to satisfy PS-11 on wet stacks in Coal Fired EGUs
William Averdieck, President, PCME Inc; Ed McCall
Coal fired EGU’s are installing ,commissioning & certifying PM-CEMs according to PS-11 in order to
satisfy MATS requirements. An important part of PS-11 is performing a correlation test, calibrating the
instrument output to the results of gravimetric isokinetic samples over 3 levels of particulate emissions.
This paper considers the experience of calibrating the PCME Stack 181WS Instrument in stacks after
wet FGD plant, the methods used by plant to create these different dust levels & the results of such
calibrations. The scope & experience of supplementary calibration techniques: particulate spiking &
the use of particle generators (such as the QAG) are also considered in the paper.

duragE3.2 MATS Rule: High-sensitivity PM measurement even at the lowest concentrations of dust
Richard Hovan, Director, Environmental Business Development, DURAG GROUP; Lori McCloud
The new MATS Rule as well as the Cement MACT requires particulate monitoring and reporting at
a low level not required in any rule before. Newest technologies must be able to meet these
requirements and be robust enough to handle extremely difficult environments. It must be easy to
install and maintain. Sensitivity as low as 0.01mg/m3 are obtainable with the newest technologies for
backscatter methodologies. Using a red laser diode to illuminate the dust particles in the flue gas duct
the Laser light is reflected by the particles and generates background light in the stack. The stray light
plus background light are received in one half of the integrated double detector. The other half of
the detector simultaneously receives only the background light, without the scattered light portion.
Subtraction of the background light from the total light equals the stray light. The integrated double
detector share the same optics unit, no adjustment of the beam paths is necessary. The Durag system
is compliant with PS-11 (and Procedure 2) and EN 15267. It is the only PMCEMS with EPA approved
attenuated light for daily zero/span check.

SICKE3.3 PM CEM’s Technologies and Best Practices
Andy Rudolph, Product Manager, SICK Engineering GmbH; Dan Kietzer – SICK Process Automation
With the monitoring requirements in the UMATS and PC MACT rule, the implementation of PM CEM’s in
the US has accelerated in the past two years. In the next 2-4 years, several hundred additional monitors
are projected to be installed. There are various techniques utilized for the measurement of PM in
industrial processes, and this paper will give an overview of these various technologies along with pros
and cons of each. Additionally, it will discuss recent technology advancements of these techniques,
and how those can benefit the end user. Lastly, there is over 10 years of experience in the US, with
PM CEM’s installed to meet Performance Specification 11. We will discuss those experiences, and the
lessons learned by PM CEM suppliers and users.

PCMEE3.4 How The Use of Bag leak Detectors Can Reduce Your PM and Positively Impact Your Bottom Line
John Brown, Sales Manager, PCME Inc
Particulate matter (PM) is a concern when it comes to Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS)
plans for the power industry. There are many different methods of measuring PM, from beta-gauge
to optical. What method of measurement is used in an application depends on a number of factors,
especially wet stack vs. dry stack. Choosing the correct technology for your application can be
difficult with each method has advantages/disadvantages as well as cost considerations.

SICKB6.1 To 30-Day Limit or To Not 30-Day Limit: An Evaluation of One-Hour Modeled Emission Rates & 30-Day Permit Limits
Jared Anderson, Senior Air Dispersion Modeler, Wenck Associates, Inc.
Demonstrating compliance with the 1-hour sulfur dioxide (SO2) National Ambient Air Quality Standard
(NAAQS) in a regulatory modeling analysis can be challenging. However, a new compliance method
was introduced by EPA on April 23, 2014, with the release of the 1-hour SO2 non-attainment area
State Implementation Plan (SIP) guidance. This guidance includes procedures to address the 1-hour
SO2 NAAQS with a 30-day SO2 permit limit. This concept is based on the justification that the 1-hour
modeled emission rates are comparable to the proposed 30-day permit limits. The April 2014 guidance
also mentions that other long-term averaging times could be used in lieu of a 30-day limit. A case study
will be presented of an AERMOD dispersion modeling analysis evaluating 1-hour modeled emission
rates & how these would translate into a 30-day permit limit. Other averaging times for the same
application as the 30-day permit limit will be evaluated. Various parameters within AERMOD (e.g. U*,
etc.) will also be adjusted to evaluate the effects on the 1-hour modeled emission rate & on the 30-day
permit limit. The presentation will include recommendations to consider when considering the use of
the 1-hour SO2 non-attainment area SIP guidance.

aecomB6.2 Evaluation of Low Wind Modeling Approaches for Tall-Stack Databases
Robert Iwanchuk, North America Air Quality Practice Leader, AECOM; Robert Paine
In its implementation of the SO2 1-hour NAAQS, EPA has been relying upon both dispersion modeling
as well as traditional monitoring to assess attainment of the NAAQS. While the modeling approach is
the most cost-effective, the dispersion modeling tools are not unbiased. One of the areas needing
improvement in EPA’s preferred dispersion model for short-range applications, AERMOD, has been its
handling of low wind speed conditions. In recent years, evaluation of AERMOD for low wind speed
conditions has included low-level tracer release studies conducted in the 1970s. The focus of this study
is further evaluation of AERMOD for tall-stack field databases. One of these databases features 5 SO2
monitors in the vicinity of the Dakota Gasification Company’s plant and the Antelope Valley Station
power plant in an area of both flat and elevated terrain in North Dakota. In addition to this database,
this study considers other field databases for tall stacks in both flat and highly complex terrain. The
purpose of this evaluation study is to review the latest AERMOD low wind performance for multiple
implementation combinations and to advise EPA about the usefulness of these options. The study also
includes an evaluation of AERMOD with sub-hourly meteorological data (the “Sub-Hourly AERMOD Run
Procedure”, or SHARP). The presentation will provide a discussion of the modeling options and the field
study databases that were tested, as well as the model evaluation results.

erm-logoB6.3 Challenges with NAAQS Implementation using Regulatory Air Quality Modeling Guidance & Technique
Richard Hamel, Senior Project Manager, Environmental Resources Management (ERM); Beth Barfield & Mark Garrison
The ability to demonstrate compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) has
emerged as a principal challenge for industrial operations that must confidently prepare to meet
regulatory requirements and strategically plan for future growth. Stringent air quality standards, dynamic
modeling techniques, and evolving implementation guidance demand creative, and innovative
solutions to ensure that both short-term requirements and long-term objectives can be met. Ambient
impacts from the three “virtual” facilities were evaluated using current and proposed EPA modeling
techniques and guidance to quantify modeled concentrations relative to applicable NAAQS for
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less
than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The virtual facilities represented a typical industrial manufacturing operation, a
petrochemical refinery, and a natural gas-fired electric generating unit. Locations evaluated featured
simple, intermediate, and complex terrain, with representative meteorological data and ambient
background concentrations processed from quality-assured observations to simulate environmental
conditions. This presentation reports on the virtual facilities analysis, identifies areas that often make
compliance with the NAAQS difficult for even well controlled sources, and offers suggestion to adjust
techniques and policies to promote new industrial growth while protecting ambient air quality.

B6.4 Predictive Emissions Monitoring For Air Compliance & Process Optimization
Brian Swanson, President, CMC Solutions LLC; Bryan Bush & Eugene Simon
U.S Federal regulations under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments promulgated in 1990 require
continuous monitoring of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases
and hydrocarbons. This presents a daunting and costly endeavor for industrial facilities that choose
to solely use Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for compliance. Continuous monitoring
systems often are costly to install and require significant amounts of maintenance throughout their life
cycle, representing high recurring costs for CEMS customers. A statistical Predictive Emissions Monitoring
System (PEMS) offers a cost effective, EPA certified alternative to a CEMS system.1 This presentation
will focus solely on Empirical models for PEMS. Empirical systems have been developed using both
neural network and statistical hybrid models. Statistical systems generate predictions using relational
database, paired historical data and process parameter data. The statistical hybrid exploits the existing
statistical relationships between the fixed historical training data sets. Statistical models such as these
allow for any given process to be modeled without an in-depth knowledge of the design or chemistry
involved in the generation of pollutant emissions. This is opposed to other empirical methods such as
neural networks or other first principle formulations, which require a greater knowledge of the systems
design in order to effectively generate accurate predictions.

B6.5 Comparison of SACTI & AERMOD Droplet Deposition Predictions for a Wet Stack
Anke Beyer-Lout, Project Scientist, CPP Inc.; Ron L. Petersen, Ph.D., CCM
In this talk the Seasonal/Annual Cooling Tower Impact (SACTI) model and AERMOD droplet deposition
predictions are compared for an idealized wet stack. Wet stacks provide direct contact between liquid
and the exhaust gas passing through the flue. Some of the liquid may be entrained in the exhaust stream
and may be carried out of the stack as stack rain. SACTI was developed by EPRI and was designed
to provide predictions of cooling tower plume drift (i.e., droplet deposition) as well as plume visibility,
fogging, shadowing and icing on a seasonal/annual basis. AERMOD is EPA’s preferred dispersion model
for regulatory air quality modeling applications. AERMOD is a steady-state Gaussian plume model used
to assess pollutant concentrations from a wide variety of sources. To compare SACTI and AERMOD
droplet deposition, a generic wet stack was simulated on flat terrain. Meteorological data, the droplet
size distribution and the receptor grid were designed to match in SACTI and AERMOD. Two deposition
scenarios were evaluated: 1) evaporation effects neglected in both SACTI and AERMOD and 2)
evaporation affects included in SACTI. This talk discusses the theoretical differences in the dispersion
and deposition algorithms between the two models and points out why these differences explain the
variation between the droplet deposition predictions when evaporation effects are neglected. The
effect of neglecting evaporation on the AERMOD droplet deposition predictions is also discussed.

B6.6 Ambient Odour Measurement & Modeling
Maryam Mirzajani, Environmental Engineer, Matrix-Solutions
An increase in the scale of operations in the Alberta oil sands has caused numerous odour complaints
in the region. Although there has been improvements in reducing emissions in the has area such as
strict requirements for flaring, venting and incineration, odour concerns has being raised in the area
more particularly in heavy oil production sites (e.g., Peace River region). Plenty of symptoms such as
headaches, burning eyes, and sinus congestion have been experienced and reported by the Alberta
residents which emphasizes on the necessity of odour assessment and development of odour policy
framework. This paper focuses on odour issues in Alberta and summarizes the current assessment
approaches and existing regulatory guidelines. Current studies focus on contribution of individual
chemical species (such as hydrogen sulphide, benzene, and carbon disulphide) in odour problem and
compare the predicted values against the regulatory standards. However, a more comprehensive
assessment will include an interaction amongst odour precursors and estimate the accumulate effect
of those species in odour concentrations. This paper discusses the effective technique to conduct odor
assessment and compliances verification against regulatory requirements.

B7.1 Under Reporting of NOx Emissions
Robert Mullowney, President, MonitorTech Corporation LLC
Many plants are under reporting their NOx emissions by as much as 80% . I have collected certified data
at a number of different types of plants over several years. The data clearly shows that only one type
of analyzer is allowed to under report NOx (NO + NO2). Plants with Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer’s
(RTOS) using chemiluminescence analyzers to measure NOx are all most always underreporting NOx
emissions by more than 20%. The regulations that allow NO or NO2 converters NOT to be tested with NO
or NO2 gases on a daily basis is in conflict with generating reliable data. Simply follow the regulations
that all other sources of measurement MUST follow will assure accurate reporting of emissions of NOx. I
will show the certified data, and related EPA regulations.

B7.2 Particle Losses with a Large Diamater Nafion Air Sample Dryer
Gene Bohensky, OEM Sales Manager, Perma Pure LLC
Controlling humidity of the air sample is critical to getting consistent results for aerosol and particle
analyses across a wide range of ambient conditions. Gas sample dryers with Nafion membrane
technology have been shown to control air sample humidity well in many analysis applications but
until now have shown high particle losses due to their small pathway diameters. In this presentation it
is demonstrated that the particle losses of a large diameter Nafion dryer with a pathway optimized for
laminar flow are characterized to determine whether low particle loss measurements can be achieved
in real world applications. Users and researchers measuring PM 2.5 or PM1 or performing aerosol
research and analysis will have an effective option to control humidity while improving measurement
accuracy and limiting particle losses.

B7.3 New Generation NOx O2 Analyzer for Continuous Measurement
Tom McKarns, Principal, ECO PHYSICS, INC.
ECO PHYSICS introduces a new generation of fully capable emissions analyzers for NOx, O2 and other
compounds. The analyzer includes an on board computer for data storage, calibration routines
and data communications. The NOx Ox analyzer series is based on our proven, dependable series
of analyzers for NOx, Ammonia and O2 and incorporates the most up to date communications
capabilities desired by today’s analyzer specialists.

B7.4 Design and Oversight of Emission Testing Programs
David Elam, Principal, TRC Environmental Corporation; Doug Austin, Institute of Clean Air Companies
Emission testing remains one of the most challenging environmental measurement disciplines. A
successful emission test program requires a solid understanding of test program objectives and
the right combination of test methodology, expertise, process operations, and regulatory agency
coordination. Because there are so many variables and potential sources of error, many emission
testing programs are not properly completed or are completed at significant – and often unanticipated
– expense. The good news is that the challenges associated with emission testing can be effectively
managed with proper program design, planning, coordination, and implementation. This presentation
provides an overview of a whitepaper developed by the Institute of Clean Air Companies (ICAC).
This whitepaper provides information that will help plant personnel and manufacturers of air pollution
control equipment design, manage, oversee, and evaluate emission testing programs. The content
is applicable to compliance, in-house engineering, and performance guarantee test programs. The
principles and practices outlined in this whitepaper will help plant personnel and manufacturers of air
pollution control equipment achieve their emission testing objectives while controlling program costs
and schedule.

B7.5 Multi-Source Monitoring via the Cloud
Joseph Montano, Regional Sales Manager, Standard Filter
Districts with multiple fixed and portable emission sources now have a dual-purpose tool to drive
compliance. This inexpensive black box approach provides automated reporting for the source operator
and the option of compliance monitoring for the agency or adjacent community. The data can be
optioned to pass through to the reporting agency/district for ease of compliance or to a community
site for disclosure and transparency. In addition repeat offenders can be “ankle-braceleted” thereby
passing permit conditions directly to the agency and relieve the need for excessive onsite inspections
for the repeat offender. All this information is secure and passed up to a secure cloud without the need
for Internet at the source sites.

B7.6 Radiological Forecast Modeling System
Bryan Matthews, Operations Manager, Lakes Environmental Software; Dr. Jesse Thé, Michael T. Hammer, & Bryan D. Matthews
Nuclear and radiological materials serve to provide great benefit to humanity including use in medicine,
agriculture, industry, and energy production. However, these materials are also extremely dangerous
if released into the environment as a result of intentional or accidental misuse or caused by natural
disasters. Nuclear or radiological emergencies have the potential to cause catastrophic human health
impacts and environmental resource damages. Numerous events come to mind including Three Mile
Island, Chernobyl, and most recently Fukushima. These highly publicized events which caused extensive
adverse impacts evoke widespread fear and therefore must be taken seriously by world governments.
Government response agencies, emergency responders, and the public must have access to realtime
and forecast information during an emergency that provides accurate information regarding
how radiological materials are moving in the atmosphere, what types of radiological materials are
involved and at what concentration levels. We present an analysis of a novel implementation of a
state-of-the-science IT radiological forecasting system for tracking and predicting what locations are
being impacted or forecasted to be impacted in the next 24-72 hours. Armed with this information,
response agencies and the public can quickly implement the most appropriate response strategy. For
example, shelter in place, mass evacuation, decontamination methods and medical triage/treatment

G7.1 Permitting a New Unit with “Eyes Wide Open”
Renée Keys, Senior Environmental Analyst, Entergy Services, Inc.; Deborah Saxton, CB&I Environmental & Infrastructure
Typically air quality permitting considerations are most often the most complex & time sensitive aspect
to securing environmental permit approval for new fossil power projects. However, the location of a
proposed project, the integration into an existing facility, & local agency requirements can create
unexpected challenges. These considerations are presented to assist power companies & project
developers that are considering new power generation to move a project through the permitting
process, to minimize complications, & to present appropriate information in permit applications. The
considerations will also assist with the preparation of contracts with engineering, procurement &
construction (EPC) contractors & permitting consultants. A cooperative & proactive dialog between
parish, state & federal agencies (i.e. pre-application meetings) as well as between the owner,
EPC contractor & the permitting consultant can successfully address all concerns & issues. These
considerations are related to a project located in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana on the Mississippi River
near or adjacent to other industrial facilities. The project includes the decommissioning of two older
natural gas units & the construction of a 550 KW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) unit. Eagles,
levee restrictions, noise, & zoning are a few of the challenges that were addressed in the permitting

G7.2 Modern Modular Designed Environmental & Process Data Management Systems
Richard Hovan, Director; Environmental Business Development, DURAG GROUP; David Triebel
The advantages of a modern modular designed Environmental and Process Data management
solution compared to single source software, in respect with today’s requirements from regulatory
side as well as from the end user’s needs are to a global level. The today’s demand is different
as is has been in the past as more and more requirements are coming up. Today most company’s
need to keep track with environmental regulations as well as internal company polices are not just a
point source level. Plants need to review, simply, all information from one package; corporate needs
to review all plant information, globally, from the same reporting package. To fulfill this requirements
they need a flexible basis software where different modules can be installed like DAS/DAHS, Air
dispersion modeling, CEMS, PEMS, Water management in respect of Water pollution control, etc., as
well as the data security requirements and centralized access to all of these different data sources.
A Modern modular designed Environmental and Process Data management solution has the ability
to provide what a nationwide or even Global operating company from today require; cost effective
management with an all in one software solution.

G7.3 A New Strap-on Sensor System for Measuring Reagent Mass Flow Rates in Piping for Dry Sorbent Injection & Activated Carbon Injection
John Stencel, President, Tribo Flow Separations; Dr. Amir Ghasemi, Tribo Flow Separation; Dr. David
Herri, Keyu Chen & Gong Cheng, University of Kentucky; Cal Lockert, Breen Energy Solutions
The capacity to inexpensively and routinely measure both gas and reagent flow rates in highlybranched
dry sorbent injection (DSI) and activated carbon injection (ACI) systems would beneficially
impact the optimization of reagent utilization and minimization of unwanted flue gas constituents. Tribo
Flow Separations (TFS), in cooperation with Breen Energy Solutions and the University of Kentucky, have
embarked on a research for development (R4D) project funded by the National Science Foundation
with an aim of innovating process control instrumentation (PCI) that simultaneously provides air and
reagent mass flow rates using sensors that strap onto the piping used in highly-branched DSI and ACI
pneumatic conveyance technology. This presentation describes the R4D that has been accomplished
during the previous year and the status and attributes of the new PCI concept. Reliable reagent flow
rates have been measured within DSI piping at a large utility plant using the strap-on sensors; these
measurements do not require installation of specialty pipe sections or intrusive sensor placements, and
are not influenced by reagent deposition nor erosion within the piping. The status of plans to integrate
the reagent distribution data from the sensors with already-installed operator systems/user-interfaces
at power plants is discussed.

G7.4 Is the F-Word Killing Your Organizaiton?
Dr. Maria Church, CEO, Corporate Leadership Solutions
One of the biggest challenges facing leaders over the next 10 years is creating a corporate culture
that attracts the best employees. The next generation of leaders look at organizational culture as
one of the most important factors in working for or staying with a company. Cultures based on fear,
manipulation, and intimidation will not keep talent -period. The ironic part of fear-based cultures is that
most organizations do not even realize that fear reigns. Fear is ubiquitous and our culture is anesthetized
by this illusive and pervasive cultural element. Knowledge management, innovation, and knowledge
creation are critical to the success of most organizations. Japanese researchers Ikujiro Nonaka and
Toshihiro Nishiguchi, extensively researched how organizations create knowledge. They found that
ba must be readily available for knowledge to occur. Loosely translated, ba is a positive energy. In
order for ba to exist, four elements must be present: love, care, trust, and compassion. Without those
elements, knowledge creation is nearly impossible. Love and fear cannot be present at the same time
nor in the same space, and innovation cannot occur in fear. What’s love got to do with it? Everything
– motivation, loyalty, productivity, meaning, purpose, profits, engagement, innovation…

G7.5 Different Financial Performance Responding to Corporate Social Responsibility
Xiping Pan, student, China University of Geosciences; Jinghua Sha
This paper examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and different
corporate financial performance (CFP) using panel data for 228 Chinese mineral listed firms from
2010 to 2013 with Pooled Least Squares regression analysis. All 228 listed mineral firms selected in this
paper have been classified into two sub-sectors based on each CFP indicator: the good financial
performance sector and low level financial performance sector. Generally, our study shows that the
differences in the relationship between CSR and CFP is CSR has significant positive effect on CFP in
good financial performance sector which indicates CSR do well for CFP. Our study also considers five
different sublevel CSR elements in capturing the effects of CSR elements on CFP. Overall, shareholder,
employee and environmental responsibility have significant relationships with CFP, which are the
stakeholders who have the closest linkage with firm operation. Our research estimation also shows that
CSR has some effects on CFP but it’s not dominant.