AndritzC3.1 FGDplus – An Efficiency Booster for Open Spray Tower Technology
Andreas Gruber-Waltl, Team Leader Process Development, Andritz Environmental Solutions; Christian Patterer & Michael Kramer
The drivers for process development in the field of flue gas cleaning technologies are no longer
limited to more stringent country-specific emission limits. Meanwhile, there are other drivers, such as
the optimization of removal efficiencies in order to minimize energy & recourse inputs. Additionally,
the interfaces towards new separating technologies, such as carbon capture, are changing the
existing requirements. A new type of FGD technology based on the well proven limestone operated
open spray tower of ANDRITZ Energy & Environment (AE&E) meets these future challenges for wet
FGD installations. The FGDplus – an advanced version of conventional FGD technologies – has been
developed from scratch starting in 2006 & is now available for commercial FGD applications. The results
from an industrial-scale test facility located at a German power station exceeded the expectations in
the potential of this forward looking technology. Based on these results, concepts for commercial use
have been developed which are now being implemented in wet scrubbers at the back end of three
coal fired power boilers (300 MWel) in Germany & China. The FGDplus module can be installed in green
field scrubber applications where it shows far better power consumption figures than the conventional
open spray tower. It can also be used as a tailor made tool for retrofitting existing FGD installations in
order to increase acid gas & particulate matter removal efficiency or reduce power consumption.

ADA- CSC3.2 The Dynamic Mercury Capture Test: Rapid PAC Prototyping for Enhanced Mercury Capture
Joe Wong, Chief Technology Officer, ADA Carbon Solutions; Chris Vizcaino, ADA Carbon Solutions; Nick Lentz, University of North Dakota
The MATS ruling will be in full effect by April 2015 & it will be critical for electric generating utilities (EGUs) to
have properly assessed the best available mercury control technologies in the market. EGUs are signing
contracts with mercury control technology providers for 2-3 years, but as of yet there are currently
no ASTM and/or standard specifications which can directly correlate a sorbent’s ability to effectively
remove mercury from flue gas. With an ever growing demand for mercury control technologies &
a spike in the new emerging products capable of providing solutions for today’s mercury emission
control, the task of selecting an effective & economical sorbent becomes increasingly difficult. ADA
Carbon Solutions in collaboration withAECOM has devised a simple yet powerful method to rapidly
prototype sorbents & demonstrate their success in a dynamic flow regime. The technique allows for
the flexibility of simulating conditions taken directly from EGU applications, such as, eastern & western
flue gas, & SO3 spiking capabilities. As such, the Dynamic Mercury Index test provides an efficient &
accurate method to quantify the performance of existing technologies, & enable the development of
new & improved sorbent formulations.

NALCOC3.3 Non-Carbon, Liquid Sorbent for Mercury Emission Control in Spray Dry Absorbers
Tommy Hung-Ting Chen, Lead Chemist, Nalco, an Ecolab Company; Bruce A. Keiser, Wayne M. Carlson, Brett Showalter, Jianwei Yuan & Nicholas R. Denny
Spray dry absorbers (SDAs) are used in many coal-fired energy generating units for acid gas control.
These units can also be utilized to reduce mercury emissions. Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one
potential strategy for mercury capture in a dry scrubber; however, carbon can be difficult to feed
& has inherent handling issues. A unique non-carbon, liquid sorbent that contains no halogen has
recently been developed for capturing mercury across dry scrubbers. As a liquid, it is easily applied
into the dry scrubber reducing capital costs & handling concerns related to powdered sorbents. This
paper will present results of the application of this liquid sorbent in a commercial coal-fired power

NOVINDAC3.4 SO3 Tolerance of Amended Silicate Mercury Sorbents
Thomas K. Gale, Director of Technology Development, Novinda Corporation; James R. Butz
In the past several years, Novinda Corporation has made significant advancements in their amendedsilicate
product for mercury control at power plants configured with a stand-alone ESP & at plants
that are configured with an ESP & wet FGD. One of the advantages of amended silicates in the
latter configuration, where power plants are burning relatively high-sulfur bituminous coal, is the
tolerance of the amended silicate mercury oxidation capability with respect to the presence of SO3
in the flue gas. The current paper documents & quantifies the extent of SO3 tolerance for each of the
Novinda Corporation commercial products. The impact of SO3 concentration is shown as a function
of concentration & temperature up to 40 ppmv SO3 & 775 °F, respectively. Amended silicate utilizes a
unique chemistry to reactively capture both elemental & oxidized mercury directly from the flue gas,
which does not rely on adsorption. The reactive sites of these Novinda Hg-control products do not
react with SO3. Consequently, they are over 90% resilient to oxidation performance degradation by
SO3, even in the most challenging SO3 environments.

united conveyorC3.5 Different options for specifying a Mercury Reduction System
Conner Cox, Process Engineer, United Conveyor Corporation
Dry Sorbent Injection (UCC DSI) will present a number of options for specifying
a system for Mercury reduction from flue gas using activated carbon or non-carbon based sorbent
injection. Many recent specifications have been developed with the skirted silo concept based on
the traditional activated carbon injection system. This type of specification limits the ability of the
equipment suppliers to provide creative, highly functional, cost effective solutions to fit the specific
application. This presentation will cover a number of options available that may fit outside the
conventional design.

SLR LOGOC5.1 Startup & Shutdown Considerations under MATS
Bruce Macdonald, Principal Scientist, SLR International; Eri Ottersburg
The final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) regulation specifies a work practice compliance
requirement for startup and shutdown of affected EGUs. That standard establishes new monitoring
and recordkeeping requirements related to periods of startup and shutdown. The final rule had still
indicated that further clarifications would be forthcoming. This paper summarizes the requirements for
coal fired boilers, with special consideration for fluidized bed combustion units. Several case studies
are presented that discuss the current startup and shutdown permit requirements, along with those
imposed by MATS, and potential changes and challenges related to establishing compliance.

winstonC5.2 MATS Compliance Strategies
Stephanie Sebor, Associate, Winston & Strawn LLP
My presentation will be aimed at power plant environmental managers and will address practical
considerations in implementing MATS. I will address emission limits, monitoring and testing, work
practice standards, and reporting. My presentation will cover regulatory updates surrounding the
MATS startup and shutdown work practice standards as well as developments on MATS litigation.

NOVINDAC5.3 Comprehensive Trial Planning for Achieving EPA MATS Compliance
Steve Baloga, V.P. Environmental Services, Novinda Corporation
Successful pollutant reduction trials requires planning with a comprehensive approach
considering system configuration, flue gas chemistry, impacts to other regulated pollutants,
impacts to process outfalls and impacts to balance of plant operations. In addition, planning
must include proper testing and monitoring equipment and personnel for rapid evaluation of
system response to reagent and sorbent injections. Contingencies must also be considered such
as re-emission mitigation or alternate technologies in the event the primary technology fails.
The presentation will include discussion of several possible mobile pollution control technologies the
presenter has applied for achieving compliance with MATS Hg and HCl limits. Technologies to be
covered include chemical Hg oxidants and post-combustion sorbents and reagents for Hg and HCl.
Testing and monitoring equipment discussion will focus on selection of mobile continuous mercury
monitoring systems (CMMS) and modified EPA Method 30B sampling issues to be considered before
trials. Evaluation of process outfalls (fly ash quality, FGD liquids and solids) will also be discussed.
Comprehensive trial planning is necessary to yield the best possible MATS compliance solution.

ohio_lumex_logoC5.4 Innovations with Mercury Process Monitoring for Mercury Control
Andrew Mertz, Projects Engineer, Ohio Lumex Co.; Joseph Siperstein
Mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, cement producing plants, and industrial boilers have been
regulated in the U.S. by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS). These rules are anticipated to
significantly reduce emissions and consequently lower the concentration of HAPS in the flue gas effluent
from these facilities. This presentation will discuss mercury measurement options for Plant Operators. For
mercury, the Ohio Lumex 915 J Process Monitor provides utilities the ability to see their mercury data
in real-time without all of the maintenance and hassle that generally comes with a CEMS. Paired with
sorbent traps for compliance, a process monitor can monitor real-time trends as well as save significant
amounts of money on control technologies by optimizing the injection rates. Experience and data on
mercury process monitoring at numerous different plants will be presented as well as how it ties into a
Mercury Control Strategy.

trc_logoC5.5 Mercury LEE Testing Case Study
Jeremy Miller, Senior Project Manager, TRC; Dave Darnell, Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD)
Mercury & Air Toxic Standards (MATS) allow existing electric utility steam generating units (EGUs)
that demonstrate Low Emitting EGU (LEE) status to reduce monitoring requirements for hazardous air
pollutants (HAPs). To qualify for mercury (Hg) for LEE status, the EGU must emit less than (a) 10% of the
EGU-specific emission limit or (b) 29 lbs of Hg per year. Although LEE requirements can be arduous,
EGUs that qualify for LEE status will benefit from reduced compliance demonstration monitoring, which
in the case of Hg, must be performed using either a continuous Hg monitoring system or sorbent
trap system. To establish compliance with the MATS rule through LEE qualification, there are several
successive challenges that must be managed. A site-specific test plan must be developed, the target
pollutant, typically present at very low levels, must be accurately measured, appropriate process data
must be collected, & the data must be reported. Lastly, the results of the LEE demonstration must be
electronically reported utilizing the EPA’s Electronic Reporting Tool (ERT) via the Central Data Exchange
Compliance & Emissions Data Reporting Interface (CDX/CEDRI). This presentation will be a case study
of an Hg LEE qualification test program performed at Nebraska Public Power District’s Sheldon Station.
In addition to a discussion of results, the best practices generated throughout the development,
execution, & reporting phases of this test program will be presented.

EESC5.6 KLeeNscrub Technology Update – Why FGD Operations is Key to Hg Remediation
Mark Pastore, VP Technology, EES, Inc.
The use of mercury oxidizers and precipitants are well known in the industry. It is clear that together,
these technologies can achieve mercury MATS compliance through capture in FGD systems. What
requires further discussion in our industry is how reagent use can be optimized and mercury capture
increased by changing current FGD operating practices. This presentation will provide field data
and knowledge on how operators of WFGD systems can improve their mercury capture with minimal
reagent usage. The total cost for MATS compliance is significantly reduced as a result of these practices
with the KLeeNscrub operating platform.

michiganC8.1 Tuning Electronic Properties of PAC for Enhanced Electrostatic Precipitator Performance
Herek Clack, Professor, University of Michigan; Eric M. Lee & Ubong Solomon, Illinois Institute of Technology; Chris Vizcaino & Joe Wong, ADA Carbon Solutions
Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that are marginally sized or marginally operated can face challenges
in meeting the U.S. EPA Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS) particulate matter (PM) emissions limit
during PAC sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. Even with the low injection rates achievable
with current generation sorbents, both the carbonaceous substrate and any halide surface treatments
of such sorbents exhibit markedly different dielectric properties compared to fly ash. The objective of
the present study is to begin to develop the fundamental understanding of the electrical properties
PAC sorbent alone, and in combination with bulk fly ash, to determine the impact on the resulting
dustcake layers collected on ESP discharge and collection electrodes, and ultimately on ESP operation
and PM collection efficiency itself. Commercially available activated carbons were surface treated
with functional moieties designed to alter the material’s electrical properties. Measurements of volume
resistivity and particulate removal in a small scale ESP reveal clear changes compared to the base
carbon, and this data will be described in light of its impact on ESP performance for particulate removal.

ada-es-inc-logoC8.2 Reducing Reagent & Sorbent Costs for Mercury & Particulate Matter Control for Units with ESPs
David Young, Product Leader, ADA-ES, Inc.; Greg Filippelli & Constance Senior
The new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS) will increase demand for activated carbon injection
(ACI) systems for mercury control. Many of the coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. use electrostatic
precipitators (ESPs) to control particulate matter. When powdered activated carbon (PAC) is used
for mercury control on these systems, it is injected upstream of the ESP. Some ESPs require flue gas
conditioning (FGC) to meet the required limits on stack opacity. Sulfur trioxide (SO3) is typically injected
into the flue gas at plants where the resistivity of the fly ash is high. However, the presence of SO3 in
the flue gas reduces the effectiveness of PAC for mercury control, resulting in higher injection rates to
meet compliance limits. ADA® RESPond™ Liquid Chemical Additive is a non-sulfur based alternative
to SO3 flue gas conditioning that has been proven to significantly reduce total sorbent and reagent
costs required to comply with mercury and particulate emission limits in comparison to concurrent SO3
flue gas conditioning with ACI. In this paper, examples of the application of RESPond Technology for
MATS compliance will be presented.

B&WC8.3 Mercury Oxidation by Bromine Addition: One Effective Response to Past Experience
Murray Abbott, Manager of Technical Support, Chem-Mod LLC; Mandar Gadgil & Steve Feeney, Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc.
Mercury can enter the environment from a number of natural and man-made sources, including
coal combustion for power generation. In the United States, mercury emissions from coal-fired power
plants stacks are regulated by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) emissions rule. Multiple
technologies are available for control of mercury emissions. One such technology, Chem-Mod
uses calcium bromide for mercury oxidation and an alumino-silicate for mercury capture. Bromine
addition is relatively low cost from both a capital and operating cost point of view. Balance of plant
impacts associated with the use of bromine addition for mercury oxidation have been experienced
at higher addition rates. There have been reports of increased super heater fouling and cold-end air
heater corrosion resulting from bromine addition. This has led utilities to evaluate the pros and cons
of bromine use for mercury oxidation. The paper will show data on effective reductions in the use of
bromine addition for mercury oxidation by using a patent-pending combustion additive developed
by Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W PGG). As a result, the cost as well as the
potential negative balance of plant effects associated with the use of bromine for mercury oxidation
have been reduced.

ALBERMARLEC8.4 Sorbent Products for Challenging Applications
Jonathan Miller, Commercial Development, Albemarle Corp.; Gregory Lambeth, Daryl Lipscomb
Mercury control by the injection of powdered sorbents into coal combustion gas streams is an
established and verified technique. However, there are some applications where unique operating
conditions or plant economics create a challenging environment for mercury control using standard
sorbents. These conditions include high temperature, high acid gases, fly ash sales, and circulation
of sorbents through dry scrubber systems. This presentation discusses the approach Albemarle
Corporation has taken to address these challenging applications and how its solutions are being
commercially implemented.