Carbonxt_LogoC2.1 Activated Carbon For MATS Compliance: How to get the most out of your RFP process
Erica Gonzaga, Applications Engineer, Carbonxt, Inc.; Heather Byrne PhD, PE, Michelle Brown PE, & Jack Drwiega PE
As the deadline for MATS compliance is just around the corner, your strategy for the control of mercury
(Hg) emissions should be well underway. If activated carbon injection (ACI) is part of that compliance
strategy, a range of options is available regarding activated carbons (e.g., non-halogenated versus
halogenated) & the procurement strategy/process. In this presentation, Carbonxt will provide
recommendations regarding the request for proposal (RFP) process. Furthermore, we present pros/
cons of MATS compliance strategies with PAC including a review of the most common approaches
used by utilities.

calgon carbonC2.2 ACI for Mercury Control: A Status Check Before the Big MATS Plunge
Richard Mimna, Sr. R&D Associate, Calgon Carbon Corporation
The market for any product, from cell phones to pharmaceuticals to activated carbons, will eventually
become commoditized unless there is continued innovation to improve products and add value. This
natural market driving force has led to a virtual arms race amongst the major suppliers of activated
carbon for mercury control with results that greatly benefit the end users of the products. With the
initial utility MATS compliance date nearly upon us, and innovation in the field of ACI continuing
unabated, it is prudent to review the current state of the art to help set expectations in preparation for
compliance. To this end, this presentation will present several recent case studies of the use of ACI for
mercury control with a variety of configurations and fuel types.

nol-tecC2.3 The Evolving Powder Activated Carbon Marketplace
Mitch Lund, Chemical Engineer, Nol-Tec Systems
Storing, weighing, conveying, & distributing PAC & amended silicates for Hg removal requires a
great deal of care, due to the unique material characteristics of the new generation sorbents. This
presentation addresses the current market needs for handling PAC & amended silicates, as well as a
review of successes Nol-Tec has had in meeting those needs.

Cabot-corp-logoC2.4 Advanced Mining Methods To Produce World Class Mercury Removal Solutions
Jerry Adler, Senior Engineer, Cabot Corporation
Cabot Norit Activated Carbon has developed improved activated carbons for improved Hg capture
from flue gas in multiple coal-fired utility applications. Our newest additions to the DARCO® Hg family
of mercury control products were developed especially for coal-fired units equipped with electrostatic
precipitators (ESPs). Additions to this line include products that perform well under both high & low
SO3 conditions. Full & pilot scale testing of EXP734 & other advanced products have demonstrated
significant improvement in in-flight mercury capture under challenging conditions. Through the use of
these sorbents, customers may achieve injection rates half of those previously required.

ADA- CSC2.5 Next Generation SO3 Tolerant PACs
Joe Wong, Chief Technology Officer, ADA Carbon Solutions, LLC; Roger Cayton & Jacob Lowring
Activated Carbon injection has been shown to be the best available control technology for electrical
generation units (EGUs), which must comply with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) by
April 2015. Historically mercury capture by activated carbon has been significantly hindered by the
presence of SO3 in the flue gas. The authors will demonstrate ADA Carbon Solutions’ advances in
developing a next generation SO3 tolerant Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) that can perform
well even in the presence of SO3, allowing EGUs to not only meet compliance but also gain greater
operational flexibility. The theory of SO3 tolerance will be discussed as well as the latest field testing results.

semi-bulkC2.6 Pulverized Limestone & Activated Carbon slurries w/ Vacucam® Ejector Mixers
Charles Alack, COO/CEO, Semi-Bulk Systems; Jeff Doherty
Typical Limestone slurry for FGD has traditionally been supplied by wet ball mill processes utilizing crushed
limestone. This process requires a considerable commitment by the power plant to operate a very inefficient
process for crushed limestone handling on site & for operating inefficient wet ball mill processes requiring
considerable operation cost, maintenance costs, energy costs with less than reliable slurry production.
Typical activated carbon slurry systems are prone to dusting, wear & inaccurate wetting of the carbon.
Semi-Bulk Systems will introduce technologies relating to handling large volumes of either pulverized
limestone & / or activated carbon powders to efficiently produce 30%+ limestone slurry or 20% +/-
carbon slurries, on demand, in a dust-free, fully automated process to meet any scrubber demands.
The process requires minimal real estate, operator attention & maintenance. The VACUCAM® Ejector
Mixer Process for limestone & activated carbon dispersions is highly automated with no moving parts
for powder delivery from bulk bags, day bins, trucks or silo to Mixer, providing efficient dispersion of
limestone & / or carbon slurries. Semi-Bulk Systems will describe pulverized limestone slurry processes
recently supplied to a number of coal fired stations in the USA.

united conveyorC4.1 DSI for high level (up to 90%+) SO2 & mercury removal on a large coal-fired unit equipped with an ESP & fabric filter
Jon Norman, Dry Sorbent Injection Sales & Technology Manager, United Conveyor Corporation
Dry Sorbent Injection (UCC DSI) will present a case study on using DSI for high level
(up to 90%+) SO2 & mercury removal on a large coal-fired unit equipped with an ESP & fabric filter.
Results of both testing & from permanent system operation will be discussed. In addition, balance of
plant effects from the DSI system will be explained, such as effects on ash & NO2 plume formation/
mitigation. With CSAPR re-instated by the courts, this case study will be relevant to many similar coalfired units.

naesC4.2 A DSI System installation at a Midwest Utility – a low capital cost pollutant control solution
Robert Broglio, Sr. Business Development Manager, NAES Corp.
Dry sorbent injection (DSI) systems have been in service for more than 20 years at coal-fired generating
stations, providing an effective tool for reducing sulfur dioxide acid gas emission levels. Current and
pending environmental regulations have prompted a revival of interest in DSI as a low capital-cost,
multi-pollutant control solution. This paper describes the installation of a new dry sorbent injection (DSI)
system at a coal-fired generating station (hereafter referred to as ‘the station’) owned by a cooperative
(hereafter referred to as ‘the utility’) located in the Midwestern U.S. It also presents a before-and-after
comparison of emission results. The utility did preliminary testing and proof of concept, during which it
tried both ‘trona’ – trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate (Na3(CO3)(HCO3)•2H2O) – and sodium
bicarbonate (NaHCO3 but abbreviated here as SBC). The results showed that SBC would easily meet
the utility’s objective of approximately 82 percent removal of total sulfur dioxide (SO2), so it proceeded
with designing and building a system that would inject SBC. This project warrants discussion because
it demonstrates an economical solution for enabling certain coal-fired energy facilities to comply with
recently enacted air-quality regulations and thus remain viable. Using SBC, the DSI system achieves SO2
removal percentages that rival the performance of scrubbers. DSI thus provides a feasible alternative
for units for which it would not prove cost-effective to invest in a wet or dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system.

DTE Energy (PRNewsFoto/DTE Energy)

C4.3 Execution Strategies for a Fast Track Fleet Wide Implementation of DSI & ACI Technology
Dennis Decator, Sr Project Manager, DTE Energy; Chris Patselas, Project Manager, Black & Veatch; Alan Albert, Barton Malow Co.; Ron Hanson, ADA-ES
Faced with the fast track implementation of DSI & ACI technologies on a fleet of coal-fired facilities
to comply with the upcoming MATS regulation deadline, an electric utility organization is faced with
the challenge of developing an execution plan to ensure compliance with emissions regulations to
protect electric generating capabilities. In order to meet this goal, key execution strategies have been
identified for the utility organization based on this experience. This includes the proper definition of
execution roles and responsibilities crucial to facilitating the overall project management by the electric
utility organization and its partners leading from the design, specification, selection, procurement, and
implementation of the DSI system. This presentation outlines the lessons learned and identifies the key
execution strategies of implementing such a program.

Nalco MobotecC4.4 SorbmixTM to Improve Mixing for Dry Sorbent Injection Applications
Guisu Liu, Director of Technology, Mobotec LLC; Baiyun Gong, Mike Klump, Alan Chadwick & Craig Paquette
Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) technology has been widely applied to utility and industrial boilers to meet
emissions targets under the US EPA’s Utility MATS and Boiler MACT rules. Standard DSI systems use
injection lances inserting into the flue gas duct at varying lengths to assist with sorbent dispersion. Such
injection lances often turn out to be maintenance-intensive due to sorbent buildup within the piping
and lance plugging. More importantly, poor mixing occurs within the duct, which leads to high sorbent
usage for the targeted reduction goal.This paper presents a proprietary sorbent injection technology
named SorbmixTM. Unlike the conventional DSI injection lances, Sorbmix uses injectors mounted flush to
the duct wall with an air-assisted injection system designed for maximum sorbent mixing and dispersion.
The system consists of a small booster fan and several proprietary air-to-sorbent injection nozzles. The
Sorbmix injectors are less susceptible to build-up and plugging and are easier to maintain than insertiontype
lances, resulting in increased system availability and reduced maintenance costs. CFD modeling
has shown significant improvement in sorbent dispersion by Sorbmix system compared to conventional
DSI injection lances design. Variable design parameters including fan air flow, pressure, and number of
air injectors are evaluated and optimized. A full-scale trial of a Sorbmix system on a boiler is underway,
and results will be presented when available.

NALCOC4.5 Advanced Chemistry Modeling for SO2, SO3, and HCl Removal by Dry Sorbent Injection
Baiyun Gong, Combustion Modeling Manager, Mobotec LLC; Guisu Liu
EPA’s Mercury and Air Toxic Standards (MATS) rule aims at removing Mercury, SO2, SO3 and HCl from
flue gas of combustion boilers. Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) technology is usually installed before or after
air preheater to remove these acid gases with sodium or calcium based sorbent. Without chemical
kinetics modeling, the DSI injection strategy and its performance cannot be predicted, particularly
when multiple acid gas species competitively react with sorbent particles. In this paper, advanced
chemistry sub-models for SO2, SO3 and HCl absorption by sorbent are discussed, which includes
sorbent calcination, sintering, and simultaneous reactions with SO2 and HCl, and SO3. Both chemical
reactivities (i.e. kinetics and equilibria) and species diffusion (i.e. mass transfer) are considered in the
model. By coupling the sub-model with CFD models, the sorbent usage and the extent of removal of
each acid gas species can be predicted. Sensitivity of sorbent particle size, gas temperature, acid
gas concentration, and residence time on acid gases removal efficiency is investigated. The model
prediction is also validated against tests conducted in a combustion testing facility. The importance of
mixing device to improve removal efficiency is also addressed in the paper.

Natronx_C4.6 Benefits of Conditioned Air in transloading when using Trona for SO2 & acid gases mitigation in coal fired units flue gas stream
Michael Brubaker, Commercial Development Manager, Natronx Technologies, LLC; Joshua Allen
The use of trona for mitigation of acid gases

[sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) & hydrofluoric
acid (HF)] is well established for utility & industrial boiler applications. Sulfur dioxide removal efficiency
ranges from 50% to 90% depending on downstream air quality control system equipment, injection rate,
residence times, particle size & sorbent handling. A one week DSI test was conducted at a 200 MW
plant burning Powder River Basin Coal. A United Conveyor Corporation Dry Sorbent Injection System
(DSIS) with VIPER? Mill Technology was used before injection. Natronx Trona was tested as the sorbent of
choice. The environmental conditions of the test location have ambient temperatures that can possibly
be greater than of 100F. A conditioned air system was used for a designated truck unloading of Trona
to maintain product quality. The other portion of the truck loads were transloaded using pneumatic
truck blowers using ambient temperature air. Trona under improper relative humidity & temperature
conditions will reduce the efficiency of acid gas removal in flue gas in DSI technology implementation.
The use of conditioned air guards against agglomeration & calcination. This resulted in improved Trona
handling characteristics & performance. This lead to a reduction of material usage of 15% depending
on injection. In addition use of conditioned air methodology aids in reducing transload time.

BASF_LOGOC7.1 Integrating Mercury Sorbent HX™ into Existing Sorbent Injection Systems
William Hizny, Technical Projects Manager, BASF Corporation; Conner Cox, United Conveyor Corporation; Fabien Rioult & Xiaolin Yang, BASF Corporation
BASF’s Mercury Sorbent HX™ is a brominated mineral sorbent enabling a concrete compatible flyash
solution for MATS mercury compliance. A patented, blended composition of surface treated
brominated kaolin and activated carbon is balanced to achieve both mercury capture and preserved
fly ash value in a total cost competitive manner. Since its introduction to the market, HX has consistently
demonstrated high mercury removal, above 90 percent, and controlled mercury emissions below 1.2
lb/TBtu. As every coal plant has unique features in its design or operation, an increased breadth of
mercury sorbent technologies is preferred by the marketplace to enable its participants the greatest
flexibility in finding a solution to meet their MATS compliance needs. Integration of these sorbent
technologies into existing equipment is critical to deliver the anticipated value at minimal additional
cost A study of the storage, flowability, and pneumatic conveyance properties of Mercury Sorbent HX
is presented drawing upon both material property characterization and experimental data. Specific
focus is given to the integration of Mercury Sorbent HX into a permanent sorbent injection system
designed for powdered activated carbon. Critical material handling parameters are identified to
facilitate discussions on the adoption of the technology. Case studies where HX has been used in ACI
systems will also be presented.

ada-es-inc-logoC7.2 The Use of CEMs as Process Monitoring Tools for Hg Compliance
Jerry Amrhein, Manager – CEMS Services, ADA-ES, Inc.; Cody Wilson
Monitoring the complex processes in the boiler and air pollution control equipment, beyond fault
detection, develops an understanding of the relationships between process variables, performance,
and emissions. A stack monitor for Hg compliance, whether CEMs or sorbent trap system, does not
provide enough information to diagnose incipient upset conditions that can lead potentially to derates
or other measures to stay in compliance. In this presentation, case studies will be used to illustrate: How
increased data availability can reduce the time to diagnose and solve process upsets; How mercury
measurements throughout the air pollution control equipment train can reduce reagent costs.

NALCOC7.3 Understanding Elemental Mercury Absorption Across WFGD Scrubbers: An Initial Study
Nicholas Denny, Principal Chemist, Nalco, an Ecolab Company; Bruce A. Keiser & Wayne M. Carlson
Various strategies have been developed to address mercury emission compliance of coal-fired
electricity generating units (EGUs). All of these strategies include flue gas mercury speciation control,
i.e. oxidized versus elemental, intended to maximize the oxidized mercury fraction and facilitate
regulatory compliance. For EGUs with wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGDs) units, maximizing flue gas
mercury removal is about maximizing oxidation leading to water absorption. Yet, it is also important
to understand elemental mercury absorption across WFGDs. In many instances flue gas elemental
mercury content precludes stack gas mercury emissions compliance with MATS. Elemental mercury
however has a very low pure water solubility that is governed by the elemental mercury content in
the gas phase as described by Henry’s Law. There are also a wide variety of scrubber operational
conditions that impact the composition of the scrubber liquor such as concentrations of chloride,
bromide and SOx that can influence scrubber liquor elemental mercury uptake. It is unclear how liquor
compositional changes impact flue gas elemental mercury absorption as well as its reactions with
other WFGD additives. This paper will briefly touch on elemental mercury’s absorption as it pertains to
Henry’s Law, scrubber additives and the impact of scrubber liquor composition.

387C7.4 Mercury Re-Emission Re-examined – A Thermodynamic Model to Follow
Steven Feeney, Product Line Manager – Mercury & WWT Technology, Babcock & Wilcox Company – Power Generation Group
Early work in WFGD mercury capture presumed the insolubility of elemental mercury. This seemed
reasonable when compared to the solubility of the oxidized forms of mercury. This paper will focus
on how we have moved passed this mischaracterization of elemental mercury insolubility. Wellknown
thermodynamic principles will guide the discussion regarding this alternate model, helping
utility customers understand what causes re-emission, and how they can keep their WFGD mercury
re-emission in check.

chemdata-C7.5 Mercury Control: A Passive Method Invoking Mercury’s Natural Heterogeneous Processes
Keith Schofield, Research Director, ChemData Research, Inc.
In laboratory & pilot plant testing it is evident that mercury has a previously overlooked affinity for
heterogeneous (gas-surface) chemistry. This mechanism displays itself as the natural baseline
oxidation. A new control method now is available that exploits this process by providing the gaseous
mercury with carbon-steel plates inserted in the flue gases. This is a passive non-catalytic process
proven by similar rates of oxidation on platinum, stainless steel or carbon-steel. Tested at two pilot
plants, Western Research Institute, Laramie WY & EERC, Grand Forks ND with low chlorine PRB coals
& one bituminous blend the results indicate that significant oxidation levels can be achieved with
commercially viable square footage of thin steel plates. Maintenance appears normal in the form
of occasional soot blowing to keep surfaces reasonably clear. This is a conversion method where the
atomic mercury momentarily collides with a plate forming either the mercury sulfate or oxide. This
is then instantly attacked by HCl & converted to the dichloride. This sublimes & the surface is used
solely to achieve mercury’s thermodynamic will to oxidize to the gaseous dichloride. The process gains
efficiency compared to kinetically limited gas-phase processes by being 2-dimensional & invoking
condensed-phase thermodynamically driven reactions. The dichloride is water soluble & is controlled
by scrubbing. The process is patented in the United States & China.

ada-es-inc-logoC7.6 Reducing Operating Costs and Risks of Hg Control with Novel Fuel Additives
Constance Senior, Vice President of Technology, ADA-ES, Inc.; Greg Filippelli
As implementation of MATS compliance solutions approaches, coal-fired utility boilers have many
options for mercury control. Once in compliance, utilities will need to keep the operating costs of
mercury control systems in check. Coal additives are used to increase the oxidation of mercury in the
flue gas and improve the effectiveness of activated carbon. Bromine is currently the most commonly
used coal additive. While effective, bromine addition has been associated with balance-of-plant
problems, notably corrosion of components such as air preheaters. ADA’s M-Prove™ coal additive
has been used successfully on PRB- and lignite-fired boilers to increase mercury oxidation and reduce
PAC consumption for mercury control. After use on multiple boilers for several years, no corrosion in
the flue gas path has been identified. In this paper, examples of the use of M-Prove to reduce carbon
consumption will be presented.