SKYVEN TECHF6.1 Flat-panel Solar Cogeneration for Commercial Rooftops
Arun Gupta, Founder and CEO, Skyven Technologies, LLC
Billions of dollars and decades of research have been poured into solar energy. Skyven Technologies
believes the next revolution in solar technology will come by intelligently combining the strengths
and mitigating the weaknesses of that which has come before us. Thus we developed the Skyven
Cogen System (SCS). The SCS combines photovoltaics, concentrated photovoltaics, and solar water
heating into a single system. It’s a stationary flat panel that’s easy to install and maintain, just like a
traditional PV panel today. However, it produces electricity with up to 90% higher efficiency than
traditional PV. On top of that, it also heats water better than evacuated tube solar water heaters
today. Using a proprietary flat-panel optics systems borne out of Texas Instruments’ DLP Technology,
the SCS concentrates sunlight by a factor of 1100 while eliminating the need for tracking. The low
manufacturing costs and elimination of tracking costs allow this technology to reduce the total
installed cost of solar electricity by 15% and solar water heating by more than 50%, greatly increasing
the number of locations in which solar cogeneration is financially viable. This is expected to result in
wide-spread deployment of the technology on commercial rooftops, resulting in reduced stress on the
grid and reduced dependence on fossil fuels.

F6.2 Rooftop Solar vs Electric Utilities – David Battles Goliath
Greg Odegard, Principal, GO Global Environmental
Electric utilities are being increasingly threatened by “distributed” generation, especially photovoltaic
(PV) solar installations on homes & commercial buildings, which is rapidly growing in popularity as a
way to reduce continually increasing electricity costs. PV solar panels reduce demand for the utility’s
product, particularly at “peak load” times¸ e.g., midday, where highest electricity use occurs & when
the utility can charge the most. A number of utilities, e.g. Arizona Public Service & many others, have
aggressively mounted efforts to charge additional fees to customers who install rooftop solar panels in
order to cover their infrastructure investments such as large coal & natural gas-fired electric generating
plants & transmission lines. This presentation addresses the future of solar distributed generation in light
of the major challenges presented by the traditional electric utilities.

nrelF6.3 Value of Solar: Program Design
Joyce McLaren, Sr. Energy Analyst, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Karlynn Cory, NREL; Mike Taylor, John Sterling, Ted Davidovich & Miriam Makhyoun, SEPA
The use of net energy metering as a rate mechanism for distributed solar transactions has been the
topic of increasing discussion. One of the most commonly cited alternatives is known as the value of
solar (VOS) mechanism. This analysis sets aside the matter of arriving at a VOS rate, a topic that has
already received much attention and analysis. Instead, this work covers the nuts and bolts of VOS
program design. How do utilities and regulators construct a VOS program that supports distributed
solar markets over time, is efficiently administered, and maximizes the long-term goals under the VOS
construct that was intended? We begin by characterizing solar markets under the VOS construct,
asking: How will implementing a VOS tariff affect the solar market? We assess the economic viability of
distributed solar projects under hypothetical VOS rate scenarios, for a wide variety of locations across
the United States. This sets the groundwork for a discussion of specific VOS program design elements
and decisions. Should the VOS rate be applied to all of a customer’s generation, or only the net
excess generation? How, and how often, should rate adjustments be made? What are the potential
interactions with other solar incentives? How should the transition away from net metering be made?

Penn StateF6.4 Analyzing PV System Effects on Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) & Transmission Losses
Mesude Bayrakci, PhD Candidate, The Pennsylvania State University; Jeffrey R. S. Brownson & Seth A. Blumsack
Energy demand has increased along with concerns about environmental issues, energy security, and
foreign fuel dependence. As such, local renewable energy production has received much attention,
and Photovoltaic (PV) systems can be a viable approach to fulfill local energy demands. It is assumed
that PV applications will mainly involve urban areas, as >80% of people in developed countries live in
urban environments. Energy density of consumption in these areas is high, especially during the day.
PV systems in urban areas have the potential to reduce the energy demand on the grid infrastructure,
shift Locational Marginal Price (LMP), and minimize transmission-distribution losses. The optimal power
flow has been solved to show possible effects of PV systems on the electricity market using the IEEE
30-bus system. PV systems have been placed in areas where the demand is categorized as high/
low, while LMP prices and transmission losses were analyzed.The results show that the LMP decreases
significantly (around 30%) in the buses that have high demand when the PV systems are added to this
bus, and decrease around 3% in other buses. On the other hand, when PV systems are added to low
demand buses, the LMP decreases in this bus, but LMP increases in the other bus. Also, transmission
losses decrease when PV is added to system especially when they added to high demand buses.
These results show that choosing the buses to add PV system is crucial for electricity market.

PrintF6.5 PV House Energy System Appraisals (Visual Library)
Dr Adel El Shahat, Visiting Assistant Professor (UIC, USA); Assistant Professor, Suez University, Egypt, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
This paper proposes design & general range modeling of a complete photovoltaic system for providing
electrical loads energy requirements to a family house. Then, it presents system’ parts in the form
of visual library with the aid of MATLAB & Graphical User Interface (GUI). System’ specifications &
components are estimated with the aid of MATLAB & Artificial Neural Network (ANN). It uses the solar
energy data & the electrical loads in average matter to cover more range of PV houses requirements
with all the required information. Effects of solar intensity variations & surface temperature variations on
the amount of power provided by the PV panels are taken into consideration. The main requirements
for a PV system design are: site information (environmental data): data of solar intensity, ambient
temperature, relative humidity & cloudiness. The electrical load information: the data of load type,
profile & requirements. Then, the system design is proposed by the following steps to be carried out:
Calculating average daily load energy requirements; Calculating average daily solar energy input
over the year; Estimating PV array sizing; Design of the storage system; The battery charge controller;
The used DC/AC inverter; & finally Economic estimation for The PV system economics in comparable
with other conventional energy systems. It is found that providing electricity to a family house using PV
systems is more competitive with the other energy sources types.

nrelF7.1 Community Solar Session
John Nangle, Senior Engineer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Joyce McLauren
Shared solar, also called community solar, is an increasingly popular business model for deploying
distributed solar technology. Shared solar projects allow customers that do not have sufficient solar
resource, that rent their homes, or that are otherwise unable or unwilling to install solar on their
residences, to buy or lease a portion of a shared solar system. The participant¹s share of the electricity
generated is credited to their electricity bill, as if the solar system was located at their home. The shared
solar model expands the availability of distributed solar to a broader customer base, offers economies
of scale to project developers, and may reduce the cost of incentive programs and address concerns
of cross-subsidization across utility ratepayers. Increasing numbers of utilities, cities and community
groups across the U.S. are hosting shared solar projects. In this session, experts will present perspectives
of system installers, regulators, utilities, and policy. A discussion of tools for planning community solar
projects will also be included.

nrelF7.2 Shared/Community Solar: Policy & Regulatory Considerations
Joyce McLaren, Sr. Market and Policy Analyst, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Shared solar, also called community solar, is an increasingly popular business model for deploying
distributed solar technology. Shared solar projects allow customers that do not have sufficient solar
resource, that rent their homes, or that are otherwise unable or unwilling to install solar on their
residences, to buy or lease a portion of a shared solar system. The participant’s share of the electricity
generated is credited to their electricity bill, as if the solar system was located at their home. The shared
solar model expands the availability of distributed solar to a broader customer base, offers economies
of scale to project developers, and may reduce the cost of incentive programs and address concerns
of cross-subsidization across utility ratepayers. Increasing numbers of utilities, cities and community
groups across the U.S. are hosting shared solar projects. In some cases, however, policy or regulatory
barriers present challenges to program implementation. This presentation explores the ways in which
the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering,
tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may
face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment. A new tool that provides a
first-cut analysis of the economics and program design options for a potential shared solar project is
also introduced.

LotusF7.3 The Risks and Rewards of Community Solar Gardens
Emily Artale, Principal Engineer, Lotus Engineering and Sustainability, LLC
Local government agencies are increasingly turning to community solar gardens as a way to fulfill
sustainability and renewable energy goals. And for good reason: solar gardens can provide significant
financial, social, and environmental benefit to the community and they can solidify the community’s
role as a leader in sustainability. However, due to the relatively new market and variability in
financial projections, participation in a solar garden also brings inherent risk. Through a due diligence
and technical review of competing solar garden proposals for various municipalities and through
countless conversations with local utility representatives, representatives from the utility’s regulating
body, local municipalities and school districts, and energy professionals, Lotus has pieced together a
comprehensive story of the risks and rewards of participation in a solar garden agreement. The intent
of this presentation is to discuss the findings from this effort and to discuss various “what-if” scenarios,
hypothetical financial projections, and general marketplace trends. We all want sustainable energy to
succeed, and in order to ensure its success, we must set reasonable expectations for performance. This
information can help you define these expectations by understanding common assumptions made by
the industry, the interpretation of those assumptions made by the communities, and by understanding
how solar garden projects can set a community up for success.

CEC_logoF7.4 Community Solar Project Developoment
Tom Hunt, Director of Research & Government Affairs, Clean Energy Collective
Throughout the US, more individuals are seeking alternatives to traditional energy. Shared renewable
facilities, such as community solar, are long-term clean energy solutions. Due to economies of scale,
these projects are more efficient to build and managed for optimal performance and maximum life.
Community renewables that implement an ownership model allow local residents to collectively buy
into a shared, centralized facility and enjoy the benefits – such as offsetting their energy use and
reducing their electricity bill – without installing a system of their own. Currently, there are less than 100
community solar programs in the US, but this model is rapidly gaining interest as more states adopt
community solar legislation. These programs are growing for a variety of reasons – they help satisfy
renewable generation requirements, customer demand, and publicly recognize the benefits of solar
generation. Municipalities are also realizing the benefit of shared solar programs, from offsetting city
facilities to decreasing electric bills for affordable housing projects. There are often many parties
involved in a successful shared solar project. A utility company might decide to initiate a project on its
own, or local advocates may express demand and organize a campaign for shared solar. Third-party
developers, such as Clean Energy Collective may also facilitate project development and handle the
legal and logistical difficulties for any of these partners.

EPICF7.5 AB 2188: Implementation of the California Solar Rights Act at the Local Level
Joe Kaatz, Staff Attorney, Energy Policy Initiatives Center; Scott Anders
AB 2188, signed into law by the Governor on September 21, 2014 (Chapter 521, Statutes 2014), amends
the Solar Rights Act implementing, among other requirements, the first codified streamlined permitting
requirement for small rooftop solar energy systems at the local level in California. AB 2188 applies to
all city, county, or city and counties responsible for permitting solar energy systems. The bill mandates
that all cities, counties, or cities and counties pass an ordinance on or before September 30, 2015 to
create an expedited, streamlined permitting process. Each jurisdiction must substantially conform its
expedited, streamlined permitting process with recommendations for expedited permitting, including
the checklist and standard plans contained in the most current version of the California Solar Permitting
Guide adopted by the Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR). The Energy Policy Initiatives
Center, in support of the Center for Sustainable Energy, developed an AB 2188 Implementation Guide
and Model Ordinance to support local government compliance with the law and conformance to
the OPR’s California Solar Permitting Guide. The presentation will focus on explaining the requirements
of the amended Solar Rights Act to ensure that stakeholders understand and can navigate the law.

nrelF5.1 Value of Solar Program Design
Joyce McLaren, Sr. Market and Policy Analyst, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Within the past year, there has been increasing discussion regarding whether net energy metering is still
the most appropriate mechanism for distributed solar transactions. One of the most commonly cited
alternatives is known as the value of solar (VOS) mechanism. A VOS calculation involves identifying
categories of solar value to the utility, calculating their amounts, and stacking these values together
to form a bundled purchasing rate. This analysis sets aside the matter of arriving at a VOS rate, instead
covering the nuts and bolts of VOS program design. The question addressed is: How does one
construct a VOS program that supports distributed solar markets over time, is efficiently administered,
and maximizes the long-term goals under the VOS construct that was intended? This analysis begins
with a characterization of the solar market under a VOS construct, by assessing the economic viability
of distributed solar projects relative to hypothetical VOS rate scenarios in a variety of locations. This sets
the groundwork for a discussion of VOS program design elements, such as eligible customer classes,
payment frequency, rate recalculation, contracting periods, aggregate participation limits, additional
incentive support, and the program transition process away from net metering.

coronalF5.2 The New Wave of Solar: An end-to-end solution
Ed Feo, COO, Coronal
The future of solar looks bright as it continues to fulfill the U.S. Energy Information Agency’s prediction as
the fastest-growing source of renewable energy. In 2013, the solar industry saw a significant increase in
utility-scale solar in particular, but also in other non-residential distributed generation market segments
including commercial, industrial, & municipal. However, as more organizations contemplate going solar,
many find the process daunting & complex. Virtually every solar model today requires the engagement
of a third party vendor at each phase of development – one for design, another for financing, yet
another for installation, & the list goes on. This raises barriers to successful implementation, increases
costs, & potentially stunts long-term growth, causing stress about brand management & reputation.
To help organizations successfully go solar, a new wave of solutions have emerged, making it easier
than ever to jump in with both feet. Instead of moving from one third-party to the next, companies
can now bring everything under one roof through providers that offer an end-to-end solution that
includes everything from design & financing to downstream maintenance of solar projects. During this
presentation, Coronal COO Ed Feo will discuss how streamlining the process eliminates unnecessary
complexity, minimizes risk, helps guarantee the life, output, & return on investment of solar systems, &
brings more solar projects to light.

HITTEIEF5.3 Combined CSP & Water Treatment System
Oguz Capan, CEO & Chief Tech. Officer, HITTITE Solar
HITTITE Solar Inc. has developed tested and patented Direct Steam Generating (DSG) parabolic solar
trough that eleminates the use of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF), and is the only one in the world to achieve
steam at 1060F & 3600Psi. HITTITE has also developed a desalinization & Waste Water Treatment
technology using “naturally created” vaccum to boil source water at as low temperatures as 113F.
This allows the use of low temperature waste heat for desalinization. HITTITE has developed models
to implement these technologies in combined manner to generate electriciy and desalinate water
simultaneously without using any fuel.

Black_Veatch_LogoF5.4 White Nose Syndrome: Implications for Wind Energy Development
Ed Shadrick, Senior Ecologist, Black & Veatch; Doug Timpe
Bat populations in the US have undergone drastic reductions in recent years due to the introduction
of white-nose syndrome, a disease which affects the health and survival of bats. This presentation
will discuss the source of white-nose syndrome, its effects on bat biology and populations, and
how pending changes in the regulatory status of bats affected by WNS could affect power plant
development, with an emphasis on wind energy. The discussion will include other energy technologies
that could be affected.

BurnsMcDonnellLogoF5.5 Case Study: Envision Stepping up Sustainability as You Negotiate Winds of Change
Doug Dietrich, Program Manager – Envision Sustainable Infrastructure, Burns & McDonnell; Robert Healy, Burns & McDonnell
In locations with significant wind resources, the decision to develop a utility-scale wind farm project
may be straightforward. The path to defining and delivering a project that represents a “win” for
customers, the energy utility, suppliers, contractors, and community may not be obvious though. This
case study outlines the process of how Portland General Electric (PGE) issued an RFP for renewable
energy, purchased the development rights for a suitable area from Puget Sound Energy, and moved
ahead with the new Tucannon River Wind Farm (TRWF), a $500 million investment with installed
capacity of 266.8 MW from 116 Siemens SWT-2.3-108-model wind turbines across a 20,000-acre site.
It will contribute to meeting a renewable portfolio standard for supply of 15% of electricity to PGE
customers from renewable resources by 2015. The presentation will highlight lessons learned from:
selecting among proposals submitted following the RFP; negotiating multiple contract agreements;
overcoming construction challenges; managing the complexities of the project as a whole. Presenters
will also describe the team’s: commitment to demonstrating sustainability throughout the planning,
design, construction, and operations & maintenance phases of TRWF; application of the standardized
EnvisionTM framework for measuring and documenting stakeholder outreach, sustainable and resilient
design features, protective environmental actions, and community benefits.

GeorgiaF5.6 A GIS Model for Determining Locations of Solar Vortex (SOV) Power Generation Facilities
Amy Moore, Ph.D. Student, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Michael O. Rodges & Dr. Yanzhi Xu
The Solar Vortex (SOV) is an advanced solar/wind energy system currently under development. In
contrast with conventional wind energy systems, the SOV extracts energy from the buoyancy
(convective) portion of the surface energy flux rather than the horizontal (advective) component of
atmospheric winds. Because of its dependence on the local surface energy balance, the energy
extraction potential of these systems more closely resembles that of solar photovoltaic systems rather
than conventional energy systems. This presentation describes a method for both evaluating the
resource potential for electrical power generation using SOV arrays across the United States and as an
aid to locate appropriate sites for installation of these facilities. This model consists of a series of ARCGIS®
layers representing the 48 conterminous United States representing the important parameters for SOV
operations. These layers include elevation contours and various topographic, climatic, and solar flux
data. The model makes extensive use of satellite data, especially those from MODIS. The products from
this model include the representations of elevation and slope (a digital elevation model), surface and
air temperatures, air density, sensible and latent heat production, and energy production for all 48
conterminous states. This model can be used in further studies involving site analysis, and the location
of alternative energy production facilities.

EMPSiF4.1 Siting Energy Projects on Federal Lands – Overcoming Challenges
John King, Principal, Environmental Management & Planning Solutions, Inc.
There are significant challenges to siting energy & water projects on federal lands. In this presentation
we will discuss both the obstacles to siting projects on public lands versus private land, as well as
lay out successful strategies for overcoming these challenges. Often the two key concerns about
siting projects on federal lands are the schedule & the process. Schedule constraints for many energy
developers really translate to increased cost. While public land leases & public Right-of-Ways can
be inexpensive to secure compared to acquisition of private land, there can be severe schedule
constraints that may increase the cost substantially. However these schedule challenges can be the
result of unfamiliarity with federal requirements & this often leads to submittal of incomplete permit
applications. Not following an agency’s required, from required pre-application meetings, to Plans
of Development or Use, can easily result in delays of 6-24 months. The steps in the federal process will
be discussed with emphasis on key critical paths & milestones, & successful preparation of required
submittals. In addition we will discuss the availability of government GIS date & the advantages of
performing an initial site constraint study prior to submitting an application. By slightly shifting a project
location a project can sometimes be permitted in half the time.

SMUDF4.2 SMUD Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CRED) Projects
Valentino Tiangco, Biomass Program Manager, Sacramento Municipal Utility District
SMUD has a renewable energy supply goal of 37% of retail sales by 2020. Because of transmission
constraints, SMUD is looking toward local renewable resources to help meet the 2020 goal. To help
achieve this goal, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Office provided more than $5 million in funding for five SMUD CRED projects. The California Energy
Commission also provided a $500,000 grant. The purpose of CRED is to develop and demonstrate
renewable energy technologies to provide up to 5.6 MW of capacity within SMUD’s community while
helping to meet SMUD’s 2020 target and EERE’s goal of promoting acceleration of market adoption of
renewable energy technologies. The CRED activities will also help accelerate deployment and market
penetration of the SMUD community’s indigenous renewable resources making use of otherwise
overlooked resources, including waste biomass resources, and jobs for the local economy. This CRED
projects include solar, co-digestion of fats, oil and grease wastes, installation of digesters at New Hope
and Warmerdam dairies. In general, these projects contribute to SMUD’s and the State’s RPS programs
and brings local economic benefits though the creation of jobs and increased tax revenue for the
community. This paper also present lessons learned in the implementation.

UGEF4.3 Big Data Meets the Microgrid — the future of renewable energy system design
Katrina Prutzman, Assistant Director – System Design, UGE; Sarah Newman
Revolutionary new technology is allowing engineers to “see the future” and customize system designs
for the exact resources of a site. These tools have enormous potential, as they can significantly reduce
the cost of installing renewable energy, and therefore make microgrids a more attractive option.
Accurately estimating the energy production capabilities for a given site is crucial to designing the
appropriate microgrid system. Wind and solar resources, and even energy loads, can vary greatly
from location to location — but site evaluation tools (including the SET tool developed by UGE) can
utilize complex timestep energy calculations and Monte Carlo analysis to paint a clear picture of the
resources available. In the past, batteries and other microgrid technology were typically oversized,
simply because the solar and wind resources were not clearly understood. The precise estimates now
possible with site evaluation tools mean that designers can tailor a microgrid system that will meet
the load demands of the site most efficiently, making it less expensive and more reliable. Additional
predictions of grid intermittency. and generator run time can be factored in, to better predict
operating and maintenance costs. These numbers enable better site management planning, and
instill confidence in various emerging financing options available for these types of sites.

Froyal dahlman4.4 MILENA-OLGA: most efficient energy from waste
Jan-Willem Konemann, Sales Manager Renewable Technology, Royal Dahlman
Royal Dahlman & ECN together develop gasification & gas cleaning technology for biomass & waste.
Showpieces are the MILENA & OLGA. MILENA is an indirect gasifier developed to make a nitrogen
free, medium Btu gas, which is very suitable for gas engines or gas turbines, as well as for upgrading
of the gas to liquid & gaseous fuels. MILENA is 10 to 15% more efficient than conventional fluidised
bed gasifiers. OLGA is a technology which uses oil to condense & absorb tars. The collected tars
are used to fuel the gasification process. OLGA does not have wastes, nor emissions, it has no oil
consumption & a negligible energy consumption. OLGA is proven technology for most gasification
concepts. The combination of MILENA & OLGA is very efficient. 100% carbon to gas ratio & >80% cold
gas efficiency. Small systems are equipped with gas engines, larger systems will fuel a gas turbine.
Both will reach overall net electric efficiencies >30%, & >35% for larger IGCCs. In 2012 Dahlman was
selected by the British ETI to compete in a FEED study to test, design & develop the most efficient
energy from waste technology in the world. The study which developed a 7 MWe energy from waste
IGCC is recently completed. The selected site in Grimsby, Lincolnshire UK received its planning consent.
The presentation will show the test & engineering evidence made as part of ETI?s technology contest
& will give an update on project development.

nrelF4.5 Regulatory & Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit
Aaron Levine, Esq., Legal & Regulatory Analyst, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Katherine Young
As renewable energy development expands, developers, agencies and planners are frequently
presented with questions about regulatory and permitting requirements, and the timelines for new
development. Answers to these questions can be spread through many agencies and jurisdictions. The
new Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (,
an online tool being developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with funding from the
US Department of Energy, will assist planners to fill this information void. The toolkit combines the former
Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, NEPA Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that
gives the users rapid access to regulatory and permitting information. RAPID currently includes four
tools—Regulatory Flowcharts, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release
of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for 2015. RAPID was developed in a wiki
platform to allow stakeholders to maintain the content so that it continues to provide relevant and
accurate information. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utilityscale
solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, the RAPID Toolkit team will
focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional
technologies (such as hydropower and wind), and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

SterneKesslerGoldsteinFoxF4.6 Developing robust patent portfolios while navigating patent thickets
Salvador Bezos, Director, Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox
Growing and established companies alike have to stay on top of their patent strategy when operating
in crowded technology sectors. Mr. Bezos will discuss approaches for developing a robust patent
portfolio that is designed to survive administrative challenges at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office,
and will provide an understanding of how those administrative challenges are being used to dismantle
existing patent portfolios. This presentation will outline some best practices in patent application
drafting designed in particular to strengthen protection for clean energy software, instrumentation,
and service offerings, and will address ways in which various administrative challenges can be used to
fend off patent threats.